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Of late years a taste for genealogical inquiries has been introduced into this country. 
The utility of such inquiries it is hardly necessary to discuss; but we may venture 
to intimate, that these studies have a tendency to form and elevate the private character, 
and that they are not useless as auxiliaries to general history. In this country, to 
demand any special honor or office on the ground of noble descent would be considered 
ridiculous; but there is excusable -.satisfaction in tracing back our domestic histories 
to individuals who were distinguished in their day by the honorable, useful, or virtuous 
part they performed on the transient scene of action. 

The writer was first led to attend to this subject, when in England in 1851, by an 
invitation from an excellent friend in that country, Dr. Francis Boott, to visit monu- 
mental relics of the earliest English individuals of his name. Finding that these 
remains were connected with large and valuable donations for religious and charitable 
purposes, the interest was increased as the pursuit was continued ; and he was at length 
induced to undertake an investigation of the whole family line, from the Norman con- 
quest to the present day. His inquiries were stimulated and aided by the example of 
some of his fellow-countrymen and townsmen, — Hon. David Sears and Hon. Nathan 
Appleton, — whose researches had brought them to results very important in a domes- 
tic view. He accordingly visited the very ancient town of Lewes, the castle which 
was the residence of the first Earl of Warren, the venerable and interesting church 


of Southover, and the little chapel of this church consecrated to the remains of 
William and Gundreda, with its curious monumental stone. 

The observations thus made encouraged him to a further investigation ; and from 
the gentlemen above mentioned he discovered an antiquarian and genealogist well 
calculated to pursue the inquiry through the labyrinth of ancient records, heraldic 
visitations, and private histories. By his aid, together with the great advantage derived 
from the researches pursued under the direction and support of Sir George Warren, 
Bart., after three or four years of inquiry and discussion on both sides of the Atlantic, 
a very fair and satisfactory genealogical table has been formed. 


s PAGE. 

Preface m 


First Earl of Warren ^ 

Second Earl of Warren 1 ^ 

Third Earl of Warren 1° 

Fourth Earl of Warren • • 19 

Fifth Earl of Warren 20 

Sixth Earl of Warren ,• 22 

Seventh Earl of Warren 24 

Eighth Earl of Warren 30 

Reversion of the Title to the Crown 34 

The Family Descent 37 

American Branches .42 

The Pilgrim Warrens 53 

Pedigree of Richard Warren 54 

Warrens of Watertown, &c 56 

Sir Peter Warren .... °8 



Sir John Borlase "Warren 61 

Samuel "Warren, F.R.S 63 


A. — Correspondence of General Joseph "Warren 67 

B. — Correspondence of Dr. John "Warren 82 

Journal of Dr. John "Warren 85 

Revolutionary Relic of General Joseph Warren 98 

Visitations of the College of Heralds 99 


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nnHE Family of Warren has been traced, by English writers, to a Nor- 
man baron of Danish extraction. The Normans and Danes were 
united in their efforts to make a settlement in the northern part of France, 
and ultimately succeeded in obtaining a footing in that part of the country 
which, from the former, took the name of Normandy. One of these barons 
became connected by marriage with considerable families, as is related in 
the following account by an English author: — 

This Danish knight "had Gunnora, Herfastus, Wevia, Werina, Duve- 
lina, and Sainfra. 

"Of these, Gunnora married Eichard, Duke of Normandy, who had 
Richard, the father also of Richard; who, dying without issue, was suc- 
ceeded in the dukedom by his brother Robert, the father of King William 
the Conqueror; who, by Maud, daughter of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders, had 
Robert, Duke of Normandy ; Richard, Duke of Bernay in Normandy ; Wil- 
liam, King of England; Henry, King of England; and several daughters, 
one of whom, named Gundred, was married to William, the first Earl of 
Warren and Surrey 


" Werixa, according to a large pedigree in the possession of Sir George 
Warren, drawn up and signed by "W". Flower Norroy, and E. Glover Somer- 
set Herald, in 1580, married Osmund de comitis villa. This Werina is said 
to have had, by the said Osmund,* Hugh Capet, King of France ; who 
had Robert, King of France ; who had Henry, King of France ; who had 
Hugh the Great, brother to Philip, King of France. This Hugh was Earl 
of Vermandois, in right of Adela his wife, daughter and heiress of Herbert 
(or Hubert), fourth Earl of Vermandois. Hugh had Isabel, married to 
AVilliam, Earl Warren, as above ; a match in a very high degree honorable 
to the family of Warren, as it connected them with the blood-royal of France, 
as before they had been with the blood-royal of England." 

* " This differs from the best writers of French history, who say that the father of Hugh Capet, 
King of France, was Hugh the Great, Count of Paris, who died in 956 ; which Hugh the Great was son of 
Robert, Duke of France ; and he of Robert Fortis, Count of Orleans. It takes, however, no honor from 
the house of Warren, as the Earl of Vermandois was certainly related to the kings of France, and was 
descended from Pepin and Charlemagne." 



The first Warren known on the English soil was William, Earl Warren, 
who accompanied William the Conqueror, and who, having married the 
fourth daughter of William, Gundreda, we may believe tx) have been one of 
his principal and confidential auxiliaries.* He took an important part in 
the battle of Hastings (1066) ; and his services were so highly estimated 
by the Conqueror, that he gave him lands in almost every county in 

" Earl Warren is named in Domesday-book as possessing lands at 
Sharnburn, along with Odo, Bishop of Bajeux and others, and that he had 
large estates in other parts, such as Westune, in Shropshire ; in Essex, 
twenty-one lordships ; in Suffolk, eighteen ; in Oxfordshire, Maplederham 
and Gadinstone; in Hantshire, Frodinton; in Cambridgeshire, seven lord- 
ships ; in Buckinghamshire, Brotone and Caurefelle ; in Huntingtonshire, 
Chenebaltone with three other lordships ; in Bedfordshire, four ; in Norfolk, 

* The armorial bearings of the family from the earliest known period of their existence, and which 
have been continued in some lines of the descendants to the present day, were what is called in heraldry 
cheeky. This was considered highly honorable, as the game of chess is the representation of a combat 
between two parties of warriors. — ( Vide Titlepage.) 


one hundred and thirty-nine lordships ; in Lincolnshire, Carletune and 
Benington ; in Yorkshire, the lordship of Coningsburgh, within the soke 
whereof were twenty-eight towns and hamlets." * 

This list shows the manner in which the Conqueror loaded his followers 
with riches and honors, at the expense of the native Saxons. 

William was Earl of Warren in Normandy. Whether such a village 
exist in Normandy at the present time is uncertain ; but, as the Normans 
and the Danes extensively occupied the northern regions of France, it seems 
probable that the village of Warren, spelt as we now spell the name, 
situated on the route from Brussels to Cologne, might have originated the 
title. At any rate, it is certain that the earl bore this title before he 
arrived in England. On the settlement of the friends of the Conqueror, 
Earl Warren selected for his residence the beautiful village of Lewes, in the 
county of Sussex. He erected there his castle, the remains of which are 
still seen on an eminence commanding the town. (Plate I.) The principal 
part of the castle is demolished ; but the gate still continues, to show, by 
its massive construction, the strength of the fortress to which it was the 
portal. (Plate II.) 

At a subsequent period, he, with his wife Gundreda, erected the Cluniac 

Priory, in the town of Lewes, and continued his benefactions to it during 

his whole life. Gundreda was a highly religious and excellent person, and 

no doubt it was partly through her influence that her husband was led to 

endow a great number of religious edifices. 

At the present day, the traveller, selecting one of the lanes running to 
the southward of Lewes, soon comes to the pleasant suburb of Southover, 

* From the Memoirs of the Ancient Earls of Warren and Surrey, and their Descendants to the 
Present Time. By the Rev. John Watson, M.A., F.A.S., &c. &c 

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/////////) William if- Warren,, f^Hurl of Warren A Surrey 

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and, passing its church, will readily recognize the remains of the Priory of 
St. Pancras. (Plate III.) In addition to the original rich endowment, by 
the first Earl Warren, of lands, tithes, and possessions in various parts of 
England, the funds of this institution continued to increase, " until their 
manors, granges, fisheries, meadows, woods, benefices, mills, and nearly 
every other species of property, almost exceeded estimation." At the disso- 
lution of this class of houses by Henry VIII. in 1537, the revenues of this 
priory were equal to £12,000 a year in that day. As nothing now remains 
of its once gorgeous magnificence but the offices and the outer walls, enclos- 
ing a space of nearly forty acres, the splendor and extent can only be 
inferred from a letter of Portmarus to Lord Cromwell, published in " Willis's 
History of Mitred Abbies," vol. ii. 

" The churche is' in length CL fote. The heygthe, LXIIJ fote. The 
circumference, abowte it, MDLVIIJ fote. The wall of the fore-fronte, thicke 
X fote. The thyckeness of the stepil-wall, X fote. The thickenes of the 
waules interno, V fote. Ther be in the churche XXXIJ pillars, standyng 

equally from the walles. An hygh roufe made for the belles The 

heygthe of the roufe before the hyghe altare is LXXXXIIJ fote. In the 
middes of the churche, where the belles dyd hange, are CV fote. The 
heygthe of the stepil at the fronte is LXXXX fote." 

William the Conqueror, some time after his settlement in England 
(1067), having occasion to go to Normandy, constituted the Earl of Warren 
and Richard de Benefacta, alias Tonebridge, justiciaries and guardians of 
the kingdom. An insurrection being raised by the Earls of Norfolk and 
Hereford, they were attacked by Earl of Warren at a place called Fagadune, 
and their army utterly routed. He afterwards wrote to the Conqueror, in 
Normandy, that his presence in England was necessary to compose the 


differences which everywhere showed themselves. The following extract 
tells the story in the quaint language of Peter Langtoft : — 

" Tho crle of Surry sent Hacon Henry sonne ; 
He to William went, and praied him git eftsonne, 
To com tille Inglond, or els alle he lesis : 
Agein him wille men stond, and partie till him chesis." 

Memoirs, fyc. vol. i. p. 27. 

He had now conferred on him the earldom of Surrey ; and he and his 
heirs tlkence enjoyed the title of Earls of Warren and Surrey, — the former 
being derived from a Norman, and the latter from an English source. Earl 
William died in 1088, his countess having died in childbirth three years 
before him (1085). They were interred side by side in the Cluniac Priory 
at Lewes. The remains of William and Gundreda were destined not to 
continue undisturbed. Many years after the dissolution of the convent of 
Lewes by Henry VIII. the beautiful monumental tablet covering their relics 
was discovered and transferred to the churchyard of Isfield in the neigbor- 
hood of Lewes, whence it was restored to Lewes, and in 1775 was placed in 
the old chjirch of Southover, in a little chapel at one end of the church. 
This monument measures about five feet and a half in length, by two in 
breadth, narrowing at the feet. 

" The slab is of black marble ; and the sculpture — the kind of rich 
arabesque, sometimes called the Greek honeysuckle pattern, ornamented 
with leopards' heads — is executed in a bold and masterly manner. The 
inscription, in consequence of the lower end of the stone having been 
broken off, is slightly imperfect. 


" ' Stirps Gundrada ducum, decus evi, nobile germen, 
Intulit ecclesiis Anglorum balsama morum. 


Martha fuit miseris ; fait ex pietate Maria. 
Pars obiit Marthe ; superest pars magna Marie. 
pie Pancrati, testis pietatis, et equi, 
Te facit heredem ; tu clemens, suscipe matrem ! 
Sexta kalendarum Junii, lux obvia, carnis 
Infregit alabastrum.' 

"We have attempted a free translation, as follows: — 

" Her age's glory ; of the tree of dukes a noble shoot, 
Gundred, who England's churches hath replenished with the fruit 
And the sweet odor of her graces. Martha-like, replete 
With charity towards the poor ; she sat at Jesus' feet 
Like Mary. Now her Martha's part is given to the tomb, 
Her Mary's better part in heaven eternally shall bloom. 
holy Pancras ! well canst thou her pious deeds attest : 
Her heir she makes thee ; as thy mother, take her to thy breast. 
The sixth before June's calends 'twas that broke, oh fatal day ! 
The alabaster of her flesh, and sent her soul away." 

Hand-Book for Lewes, p. 37. 

An account of the discovery of" the two coffers containing the remains 
of William and Gundred, from which the following extract is taken, was 
presented to the British Archaeological Association, in 1845, by M. A. 
Lower : — 

" On Oct. 28, 1845, occurred the great discovery of the undoubted 
remains of the noble Founder and Foundress of the Priory. At the dis- 
tance of about two feet from the surface, the workmen met with an oblong 
leaden coffer or chest, surrounded with Caen stones, and containing the 


bones of a human body. On carefully removing this from the surrounding 
soil, and clearing away the earth from the lid, great was the astonishment 
and delight of the spectators to find legibly inscribed upon its upper end 
the word — 

Meanwhile the excavations proceeded, and soon brought to light a second 
coffer, slightly larger than the other, and inscribed — 

which there required no great hesitation in assigning to William de 

The coffers are each nearly three feet in length, that of William being 
a little longer than the other. From an examination of the bones, the 
height of the earl appears to have been about six feet, one or two inches ; 
and that of the countess, five feet, eight inches, — a remarkable stature for 
a woman. 



William, second earl, had the same titles as his father ; after whose decease 
(being then in his minority), when he first went into England, he lodged 
with his retinue in the chapter-house at Lewes, which, no doubt, the first 
earl had built for the religious there. He made the sign of the cross, with 
many other great men, to the foundation-deed of Salisbury Church by 
Osmund the bishop, in the year 1091, at Hastings ; and the words after it 
are " Signum Comitis Will, de Warenna." 

Dugdale says the first mention he finds of him is, that, in those mili- 
tary encounters which were between Hugh de Grentmesnill and Robert de 
Belesme, he was one of those who came to make proof of his valor. These 
meetings seem to have been contrived in order to strengthen the conspiracy 
then forming in favor of Robert, Duke of Normandy. Accordingly, when 
Robert landed in autumn, 1101, at Portsmouth, he was joined by many of 
the nobility, and amongst the rest by this Earl Warren, as also the two 
great men above named, who continued in the duke's army till the agree- 
ment was made between him and his brother, King Henry. Earl Warren, 
for the part he had borne in the dispute, forfeited his large English pos- 
sessions, and was obliged to go with Duke Robert into Normandy. Not 


liking, however, his situation there, he soon after complained to the duke, 
that, on his account, he had lost the earldom of Surrey, worth yearly a 
thousand pounds of silver, which was equal to fifteen thousand pounds 
a year at present. But, at Robert's intercession, all this was restored to 
him, and he was ever after one of the king's best friends. 

The confidence which the king placed in this earl appears to have been 
well-founded ; for, amidst the many attempts abroad to set up William, son 
of Duke Robert, he faithfully adhered to King Henry; and, when the said 
king lay on his deathbed, at his castle of Leons in France,, he was one of 
the five earls who, with other great men, attended there, and settled with 
him the succession of the crown of England ; having at that time Rohan 
and the country about Calais committed to his care. He afterwards 
attended the corpse of that king to the Abbey of Reading, where it was 
buried. This happened in 1135 ; and the year following, he was a witness 
to the charter which King Stephen granted at Oxford ; from whence we 
learn, that, like the rest of the English nobility, he submitted himself to 
King Stephen, though he had heard the late king name Maud, his daugh- 
ter, for his successor. He had no opportunity, however, to draw his sword 
either for or against that monarch ; for the earl died before the grand 
attempt was made to dethrone him. 

He married (after being disappointed in his application to Maud, after- 
wards queen to King Henry I.) Isabel, third daughter of Hugh the Great, 
who was Earl of Yermandoise. She was a widow of Robert de Beaumont, 
Earl of Mellent in Normandy, and Leicester in England. By her he had 
William, who succeeded to the title, Reginald de Warren, Ralph de Warren, 
Gundred, and Ada. Ada, the younger sister, married, in 1139, Henry, Earl 
of Huntington, eldest son of David, King of Scots, by whom she had three 


sons and three daughters, viz. Malconie and William, both kings of Scot- 
land, and David, Earl of Huntington ; Ada, Margaret, and Maud. 

Isabel, Countess of Warren, died Feb. 13, 1131. The earl died May 11, 
1138, having enjoyed the title nearly fifty years, and was buried at his 
father's feet, in the Chapter-house of Lewes. 



William, third Earl of Warren, married Adela, daughter of William Talvace, 
Earl of Ponthien and Sais. Their issue was an only daughter, Isabel, who 
married first, William de Blois ; and secondly, Hamlyn Plantagenet ; who, 
in her right, held the earldom successively. 

William, the third earl, was engaged in a crusade, and slain by the 
Turks in 1147. His heart was brought to England, and buried at Lewes. 
The Countess Adela died Dec. 10, 1174, having married secondly, Patrick 
de Eureux, first Earl of Salisbury ; by whom she had William, second 
Earl of Salisbury, and Patrick and Philip, both monks in the Priory 
of Bradenstoke. 

Her second husband died in 1168. 

The eldest branch of the male line having failed with the death of 
William, third earl, the family was continued in Reginald, second son 
of William, the second earl. 



William de Blois, fourth Earl of Warren and Surrey, was third and 
youngest son of King Stephen ; and, by marriage with Isabel, sole issue of 
William, third earl, obtained his title. By an agreement between King 
Stephen and Duke Henry of Normandy, his estates and houses were con- 
firmed to him. This accession of property, in addition to that from his wife, 
proved to be of great value to him, when, at the death of King Stephen, he 
found himself the only surviving son, and obliged to renounce all claim to 
the throne. From data, it would appear that William could not have been 
more than twelve years old at the time of his marriage. It is reported by 
some chroniclers, that the earl united with Duke Henry of Normandy, upon 
the entrance of the latter into England, in 1153, although his intent was 
known to be hostile. Others, again, report that the duke hurried his 
departure from England, in consequence of the discovery of a conspiracy 
frustrated by William, who was a participator, falling from his horse, and 
breaking his leg. His chief titles were, Earl of Warren, Surrey, Moreton, 
Bologne, and Lancaster; Lord of the Honors of Eagle, of Pevensey, &c. 
He attended King Henry II. in the expedition against Toulouse, where he 
died, and was buried in 1159, leaving no issue. 




Hameline Plantagenet, fifth earl, natural son of Geoffry Plantagenet, and 
therefore brother of Henry II., by marriage with Isabel, widow of the last 
earl, obtained his title in the year 1163. This union was considered so 
highly by Hameline, that he dropped his own coat of arms, and adopted 
those of his wife. In the contests between Henry II. and his sons, his 
name is found among those who sided with the king. He carried a sword 
of state before Richard I. in Normandy; and the money raised for that 
king's ransom, when detained a prisoner, was placed in his hands. He 
attended the king after his return, when John, the king's brother, was 
summoned before the great council at Nottingham ; assisted at the king's 
second coronation; was a second time in the army in Normandy; and, 
finally, was present at the coronation of King John in May, 1199. In July 
of the same year (according to the Register at Lewes) died the Countess 
Isabel, with whom the earl was buried. May 7, 1202. 

Their children were, first, William; second, Adela or Ela; third, Maud; 
fourth, Isabel. 

Following the example of his predecessors, this earl made many and 
rich endowments, both for religious purposes and to individuals. He not 


only confirmed "all the gifts, grants, and confirmations, &c, which his 
predecessors, Earls of Warren, had given to the monks of Lewes, in lands, 
tenements, churches, tithes, waters, woods, meadows, pastures, &c," but 
added richly from his own possessions. He also made valuable donations 
to St. Katharine's at Lincoln, to St. Mary's at Southwark, to St. Mary's 
at York, to Thetford Priory, Castle Acre, and Burton Lazar. Such had 
been the custom of the family from the first earl. 



William, sixth earl, eldest son' of Hameline and Isabel, was one of the 
jnsticiers in the king's court in 1196, by the title of Willielnms de Warenna, 
prior to the death of his father. After the return of King John from 
Normandy, an edict was issued, taking from the Normans all rents and 
lands in England ; and the French king did the same with the English for 
Normandy. Thus the title of Earls of Warren, being Norman, was, in 
strictness, abrogated ; and only that of English origin, the Earldom of 
Surrey, was left to the family. But, notwithstanding, the former title was 
continued to them (as it was expected Normandy would soon be recon- 
quered) ; and vast possessions, granted in exchange for those which had 
been lost, were confirmed by King Henry III. in 1220. 

In 1213, Earl William was one of the four barons who became surety 
to the pope for King John, in regard to matters of his excommunication ; 
and was also a witness of the king's resignation of his crown at Dover, in 
May of the same year, to Pandulph, the pope's legate, and " to his doing 
homage for the same." In the subsequent contests between the king and 
the barons, he seems to have acted the part of mediator, becoming surety 
for the king; and, when the parties met at Runnymede, June 15, 1215, 


he was one of the few to persuade King John to sign the Magna Charta, 
and was appointed to see that the king kept it. He was also a witness 
to the charter confirming the rights of the church and clergy of England. 
The following year, he, with many others, deserted the king's cause (for he 
had rendered himself odious to the people), and espoused that of Lewis, son 
of the French king ; but, immediately upon the death- of King John, he 
swore allegiance to Henry III., then an infant. 

In the ninth year of his reign, King Henry III. confirmed these two 
great charters, Earl Warren being one of the witnesses. Within three 
years, the king having revoked the charter of the forest, a demand is made 
upon him, by Earl Warren and other barons, for its restoration, or they 
would obtain it by the sword. About 1237, having been entrusted pre- 
viously with the keeping of the public moneys, Earl Warren is made chief 
counsellor of the king. 

Among the many religious endowments and grants of this earl, he 
founded a house for crouched friars at Keigate. 

His first wife was Maud, daughter of William de Albini, Earl of Arun- 
del, who died Feb. 6, 1215, having no children. His second wife was Maud, 
widow of Hugh Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, and eldest daughter of William 
Mareschal, Earl of Pembroke : by her he had John and Isabel. She died 
March 31, 1236. He had also a natural son, called Griftm de Warren. 

Earl William was taken sick at London; and, dying there in June, 
1239, was buried in the church at Lewes. 



The praenomen of John (Johannes) first appears in this family in the name 
of the seventh earl. Before his time, that of William had been most 
used ; but, from the time of this seventh earl, that of John has been much 
affected, while the other is more rarely used. This earl was the most 
remarkable of the family for his distinguished political and warlike acts. 

John, seventh earl, son of William by Maud, his second wife, was but 
five years old at the time of his father's death, and could not have been 
more than twelve, when, in 1247, he was married to Alice, "daughter of 
Hugh le Brun, Earl of the Marches of Acquitaine, and sister, by the 
mother's side, to King Henry III." Only a year subsequent (1248), he sat 
in parliament to reprove the king for his exactions. In 1252, being then 
seventeen years of age, he was permitted to consummate the marriage-rites. 
In 1254, he joined the king in France. Within two years after, he took 
part with the king adverse to the barons, in some compulsory measures 
adopted by the latter, for which the king's brothers were driven from the 
kingdom; and Earl Warren, with other noblemen, guarded them to the 
seacoast. Notwithstanding the charge of the Castle of Pevensey in Sussex, 
given him by the king, he joined the barons, but soon after returned to the 


side of the king at Oxford. The first military act of his was the gallant 
defence of Eochester Castle against the Earl of Leicester. But afterwards, 
sharing in the defeat of the king at Lewes, in 1264, he was banished by 
the Earl of Leicester, and most of his lands taken from him ; so that he 
took refuge in France. Returning from abroad in about a year, the civil 
war was brought to a close by the defeat of the army of the barons, under 
the Earl of Leicester, and the death of their leader : thus Earl Warren once 
more regained his possessions. After one or two warlike deeds, in 1268 
he received the cross from the hands of Ottobon, the pope's legate ; but 
probably paid his vows in money, and was thus released from going in 
person to the Holy Land. 

In 1270, "the earl had the misfortune," in the language of the Rev. 
John Watson, " to commit an action which could not be justified. There 
had been a long suit between the earl, and Alan, Lord Louche of Ashby, 
concerning a certain manor ; which coming to a trial before the king's 
justices, in Westminster Hall, some reproachful words happened between 
the parties, which so exasperated the earl, that he and his followers, 
drawing their swords, set upon Lord Louche, and his eldest son, Sir Roger, 
in open court, and wounded them both. Some writers say that Lord 
Louche was slain. .... Probably Lord Louche did not long survive the 

" After this misdemeanor, the earl and his attendants, being too strong 
to be apprehended, took boats, and, passing over the water, fled to the 
castle of Reigate, and there for a while made preparations to defend 
themselves. The king, however, being justly provoked at this violent 
interruption of public justice, and resolving not to let it pass unpunished, 
sent to the earl, commanding him to appear at court, and abide the law 


of the kingdom ; but this summons, through fear of imprisonment, he 
refused to comply with. On which, Prince Edward, with some forces, was 
sent down to bring him to obedience ; and he was no sooner arrived in 
the neighborhood of the castle, but the earl (persuaded by the Earl of 
Gloucester, and the Lord Henry, son to the King of the Komans) met him 
on foot, and, with great humility imploring mercy, gave up himself a 

For this act he was fined ten thousand marks, and obliged to go on 
foot, with fifty of his followers, from the New Temple to Westminster Hall, 
and there make oath that the deed was committed in the heat of passion, 
and not from previous malice. 

After the death of Henry III., the earl swore allegiance to Edward I. ; 
and early in the reign of the latter king occurred the following transaction, 
according to Holinshed : — 

" King Edward, standing in need of money, devised a newe shift to 
serve his turne, as this : Whereas he was chiefe lorde of many lordeshippes, 
manours, possessions, and tenementes, he well understoode, that, partely by 
length and proces of time, and partely by casualties, during the troubles of 
the civill warres, many men's evidences, as theyr charters, deedes, copies, 
and other writings, were lost, wasted, and made awaye, hee therefore, under 
colour to put the statute of Quo warranto in execution, whiche was ordeyned 
this yere in the parliament holden at Gloucester in August last paste, as 
some write, did nowe comaunde, by publike proclamation, that all suche 
as held any landes or tenementes of hym shuld come and shew by what 
right and title they helde the same ; that by suche meanes their possessions 
might returne unto him by escheate, as chiefe lord of the same, and so to 
be solde or redeemed agayne at his handes. This was thought to be a sore 


proclamation, that a more grevous had not lightly been herd of. Men in 
every part made complaint, and shewed themselves grevously offended, so 
that the kyng, by meanes thereof, came into great hatred of his people ; 
but the meane sort of men, though they stoode in defence of theyr right, 
yet it avayled them but litle, bycause they had no evidence to shew ; so 
that they were constrained to be quiet wyth losse, rather than to strive 
agaynste the streame. Many were thus called to answere, till at lengthe 
the Lorde John Warren, Earle of Surrey, a man greatly beloved of the 
people, perceyving the king to have caste his net for a praye, and that 
there was not one whyche spake against him, determined to stand against 
those so bitter and cruell proceedings ; and therefore, being called afore the 
justices aboute this matter, he appeared ; and, being asked by what righte 
he held his landes, he sodenly drawing forth an olde rusty sworde, — ' By 
this instrument (sayd he) doe I hold my landes, and by the same I entende 
to defende them. Our ancestours, comming into this realme with William 
Conquerour, conquered theyr landes with the sworde, and wyth the same 
will I defende me from all those that shall be aboute to take them from 
me : he did not make a conqueste of this realme alone ; our progenitors 
were with him as participators and helpers with him.' " — Memoirs, £c. 
vol. i. pp. 249, 250. 

Notwithstanding these and other legal contests with the crown, the 
earl assisted the king in laying the foundation of Yale-royal Abbey, in 
Cheshire, in 1277, and received from him, in the course of a few years, many 
valuable grants and castles ; among others, those of Dynas-Bran,* in Wales, 
and Hope Castle, with the lordships of Bromfield and Tale. In 1290, the 

* The remains of Dynas-Bran Castle still exist, and add to the picturesque beauty of the romantic 
vale of Langoflen, near which they are situated. 



earl was concerned in settling affairs between England and Scotland ; 
preparing for the marriage of Margaret, daughter of Eric, King of Norway, 
and Queen of Scotland, with Prince Edward, son of the king. During the 
dissensions between the two kingdoms, the Scots, on the death of Margaret, 
obtained by treachery the Castle of Dunbar, from which they were driven 
by the forces under Earl Warren, who, following up his advantages, com- 
pelled the King of Scotland to resign the crown to Edward, who made the 
earl governor of the kingdom. In the autumn of 1297 occurred the battle 
of Sterling, wherein, from disagreement among the English leaders, the earl 
was routed, and went with all haste to London to consult with Prince 
Edward, the king being then in France. Upon his return, the king took 
the field in person ; and, having obtained much success, the Scots sought 
the intercession of Pope Boniface ; the reply to whose haughty letter was 
an instrument dated at Lincoln, Feb. 12, 1300, asserting the superiority of 
King Edward over the King of Scotland, with the seals of the barons 
affixed ; and the first of these was the seal of the Earl of Warren. 

The earl died at the age of sixty-nine at Kennington, near London, 
Sept. 27, 1304, having previously assumed the command of the army in the 
north of Scotland. The following epitaph was inscribed upon his grave- 
stone in the church at Lewes : — 

" Vous ke passez, ov bouche close 
Priez pur cely ke cy repose : 

En vie come vous estiz jadis fu, 
Et vous tiel serretz come je fu ; 

" Sire Johan Count de Gareyn gyst ycy ; 
Dieu de sa alme eit mercy. 
Ke pur sa alme priera 
Troiz mill jours de pardon avera." 


The Countess Alice is said, by some writers, to have died in 1256 : 
the register of Lewes, however, makes it 1290. 

Their issue were William, Eleanor, and Isabel. William was unfor- 
tunately killed in a tournament at Croydon, Dec. 15, 1286 ; leaving a child, 
Alice. A son, John, was born after his father's death ; and he obtained the 
titles and estates of his grandfather. 



John, eighth earl, son of William, and heir to his grandfather, the preced- 
ing earl, was born June 30, 1286, and of course was not eighteen years old 
when' his grandfather died. At the age of nineteen, he married Joan, 
daughter of Henry, Earl of Barr, and granddaughter of King Edward I. 
through his daughter Eleanor. He was twice summoned to parliament, 
and was knighted at London. He attended the king in his expedition to 
Scotland, and was with him when he died. King Edward II. having 
ascended the throne, and going into France to marry the French king's 
daughter, in January, 1308, the Earl of Warren was of his retinue. Upon 
their return, the war with Bruce still continuing, the earl, with one or two 
others of the nobility, accompanied the king into Scotland ; the remainder 
refusing to do so, in consequence of the favors lavished by Edward upon 
his minion, Piers de Gaveston. Great and growing discontent at the 
favoritism of the king led to the formation of a powerful faction among 
the barons, who, in defiance of the king's protection, besieged the favorite 
in Scarborough Castle, which he was obliged to surrender, and soon after 
was beheaded. 


In another expedition to Scotland, in 1317, the wife of Thomas, Earl 
of Lancaster, was forcibly abducted by a knight in the service of the 
Earl of Warren, and it is even said with the private knowledge of the king. 
For this rash act his manors on the north side of the Trent were ravaged 
by the earl ; and an exchange of manors was ultimately effected, with a 
divorce between the Earl of Lancaster and his countess. The king having 
summoned a new parliament in 1318, preparatory to another excursion into 
Scotland, the nobles attended with many forces ; and, among others, the 
Earl of Warren, with two hundred foot-soldiers. In- 1321, the lords of the 
marches resorted to high-handed measures, and compelled the earl, with 
others, to join with them in the expulsion of the Spensers from the 
kingdom. For these acts, for indignities offered to Queen Isabella, and for 
his alliance with the Scots, the indignation of Edward II. at length burst 
forth against the Earl of Lancaster ; and in January, 1322, he took the field 
in person. The insurgents, early in the following March, took possession of 
Burton-upon-Trent, and defended the bridge over the river. On March 11, 
the king sealed a commission, directing Edmund, Earl of Kent, and John 
de Warren, Earl of Surrey, "to pursue and arrest the Earl of Lancaster, 
and all his party, and to besiege and take his castle of Pontefract." The 
defeat and beheading of the rebellious earl, before the end of March, are 
matters of general history. 

In 1327, the twentieth year of his reign, Edward II. was driven from 
the throne in favor of his son, Prince Edward, then a lad of fourteen ; and 
Earl Warren was both a witness to the former king's resignation, and one 
of the twelve appointed to govern during the new king's minority. 

In the first year of Edward III., the earl was with the king at Stanhope 
Park, when the Scots avoided battle by suddenly decamping in the night- 


time, thus giving a ludicrous turn to this mighty expedition. Hostile 
feelings existed between the two nations, notwithstanding repeated truces, 
until open war was declared by the siege of Berwick Castle, in March, 1333 ; 
in the final battle for which — called the Battle of Halidon Hill, in July 
following — the Scots were totally defeated. During this time, the earl 
was in the royal army ; and for the services rendered King Baliol, in a 
subsequent rising of the Scots, was made Earl of Strathern, a title which 
he enjoyed till his death. King Edward having asserted a claim to the 
crown of France, the pope interfered to preserve peace, and sent two 
cardinals as ambassadors to England, who were received by the Earl of 
Warren and the Duke of Cornwall. In 1339, he was one of the sureties to 
the projected marriage of the Black Prince with Margaret, daughter of the 
Duke of Brabant. 

Notwithstanding the wild career of his early life, about this period the 
Earl of Warren was married to Isabel de Houland. And immediately after, 
by an indenture between him and the king, dated at Chautune, June 2d, 
20 Edward III., land, possessions, and protection were secured to the one ; 
and, on the other, pledges were given "that the whole inheritance of this 
earl, with the name and arms of Warren, should be preserved by the blood- 
roval, in the blood of him the said earl." 

He died, like the former earls, possessed of much land and other 
wealth ; and, like them, made large grants to the abbey at Lewes, to 
other religious houses, and to individuals. In his will he styled himself 
John, Earl of Warren, Surrey, and Strathern, Lord of Bromfield and Tale. 
According to the register at Lewes, Earl Warren died June 30, 1347, aged 
exactly sixty-one years, — the clay of his death being the anniversary of his 
birth ; and he was buried in the abbey at Lewes. Some assert that he 


died without lawful issue, and therefore the inheritance went to Alice, his 
sister, who married Edmund, Earl of Arundel. It certainly admits of 
question whether Joan de Basing, Katherine, and Isabel, to whom he left 
legacies, were not daughters of Isabel de Houlancl. 



By the contract made with King Edward III., the eighth earl gave up>his 
title and immense property to the king, because he had no direct legal 
heir; the king, on his part, making a condition that the name and title 
should always be maintained in a branch of the royal family. But the 
king took the estate, and paid no attention to his part of the contract. 
The title and property were thus alienated for ever from the family. It 
would have been easy for the earl to have selected one of the most promi- 
nent descendants from his ancestors to sustain the name and honors of his 
family; but, influenced by his affection for the king, and the hope that 
his name would be inseparably interwoven with that of the royal blood, he 
sacrificed the hopes of his honorable line. The family, however, was con- 
tinued through Keginald, second son of the second Earl of Warren and 

The following extract may be adduced, to show the intimate relation 
of the royal line of England and the family of Warren : — 

" The first Earl of Warren and Surrey married Gundred, daughter of 
King William I., who also was the earl's relation before ; the said King 
William being the third descendant from Gunnora, daughter of a Danish 


knight, whose brother, Herfastus, was great-grandfather to William, first 
Earl of Warren and Surrey. By means of the above Gunnora's marrying 
Richard, Duke of Normandy, and through the double connection there was 
between William the Conqueror and the family of Warren, these last became 
related to the following crowned heads (to say nothing of a very great 
number of dukes, earls, barons, &c), viz. : William II. and Henry I., sons 
of the Conqueror ; which Henry married Maud, daughter of Malcome III., 
King of Scots. This Maud came by Margaret, sister to Edgar Etheling, 
and daughter of Edward, son of Edmund Ironside, the Saxon king; thus 
uniting in the sovereignty the two families of the Norman and Saxon line. 
The next crowned head was King Stephen ; to whom the family of Warren 
was related, as he was son of Alice, fourth daughter of the Conqueror, and 
sister to Gundred above named. The earl's family became still nearer 
connected with the crown by the marriage of William die Blois, third son of 
King Stephen, who married Isabel, daughter and heiress of William, the 
third Earl of Warren and Surrey. This Isabel was remarried to Hameline 
Plantagenet, natural son of Geoffroy Plantagenet, Earl of Anjou ; which 
Geoffroy was brother to Henry II., King of England. This Hameline had 
William, Earl of Warren and Surrey; who had John, Earl of Warren and 
Surrey, who married Alice, daughter of Hugh le Brun, Earl of March, and 
sister, by the mother's side, to King Henry III. Isabel, daughter of this 
Earl of Warren and Surrey, married John de Baliol, afterwards King of 
Scots. John, grandson of the last-named earl, had an offer made him by 
King Edward I. of a wife, in the person of Joan, daughter of Henry, Earl 
of Barr ; which Joan was niece to the said king, by means of the said 
Earl of Barr's marrying Eleanor, eldest daughter of the said King Edward. 
This offer he accepted ; but, having no lawful issue, he granted, out of his 



great affection to King Edward III., the reversion of his w T hole estate to the 
crown ; in consequence of which, all his castles, vills, manors, and other 
possessions, w 7 hich were exceeding large, came to the crown in the person 
of King Edward III., who disposed of the same in the way which he 
thought would best promote his own interest ; but he neither gave any of 
them to the collateral branches of the family in the male descent, nor 
confirmed to them that title which they had a right to. 

11 Thus intimately connected with the blood-royal of England was the 
noble family of Warren ; a connection which may truly enough be said not 
to be lost, even yet; for his Majesty, King George III., may be deduced 
from King William the Conqueror, whether his line be drawn through the 
whole succession of crowned heads in England, or through the different 
illustrious houses abroad, from which his majesty is sprung." — Memoirs 
of the Earls of Warren and Surrey. 



Eeginald de Warren, second son of William, second Earl of Warren and 
Surrey, and brother to William, third earl, married Adelia, daughter of 
Eoger de Mowbray ; by whom — 

William de Warren, only son and heir, who married Isabel, daughter 
of Sir William de Haydon, Knight, Com., Norfolk ; by whom — 

Sir John de Warren, Knight, who married Alice, daughter of Eoger de 
Townshend, Esq., in Norfolk ; by whom — 

John de Warren, who married Joan, daughter of Sir Hugh de Port, of 
Etwall, in Derbyshire, Knight ; by whom — 

Sir Edward de Warren, Knight, who married Maud de Nerford, in the 
county of Norfolk, daughter of Eichard de Skegeton. Their children were 
Ealph, Sir William, Sir Edward, John. "The first and last of these died 
without issue ; as also did Sir William, who was with King Edward III. 
at the siege of Calais, in 1347." But — 

Sir Edward de Warren, Knight, third son of his father, married Cecily, 
" daughter, and at last heiress, of Sir Nicholas de Eton, Knight, by Joan 
de Stokeport, his wife ; which Cecily had been divorced from Sir John 
Ardene ; " by whom — 


Sir John de Warren, Knight, only son and heir, who married Margaret, 
daughter and heiress of Sir John Stafford, of Wickham. By the failure of 
issue male in the family of Eton, Sir John Warren succeeded to the Stoke- 
port estate at the death of his cousin Isabel, daughter of Sir Kichard de 
Stokeport. Issue, Nicholas and Margaret. 

Nicholas de Warren, only son of Sir John, married Agnes, daughter of 
Sir Kichard de Wynnington, Knight ; by whom Sir Lawrence and Emma. 

Sir Lawrence de Warren, Knight, born about 1394, married Margery, 
daughter of Hugh Bulkeley, Esq. Their children were, first, John ; second, 
Randle or Ralf; third, Margery; fourth, Joan; fifth, Cicely; sixth, Mar- 
garet; seventh, Elizabeth. 

John de Warren, Esq., eldest son of Sir Lawrence, born 1414, married 
Isabel, "daughter of Sir John Stanley, of Latham, Knight of the Garter, 
and Steward of the Household to King Henry IV." Their children were, 
first, Elizabeth ; second, Sir Lawrence ; third, Jane ; fourth, Margaret ; 
fifth, John ; sixth, Richard ; seventh, Henry ; eighth, Joan. 

Sir Lawrence de Warren, Knight, son of John, married Isabel, daugh- 
ter of Robert Legh, of Adlington in Cheshire, Esq. ; by whom Sir John, 
William, and several other children. From William are descended the line 
of Admiral John Borlace Warren, Bart. 

Sir John de Warren, Knight, eldest son and heir of Sir Lawrence, 
married, about 1480, Eleanor, daughter of Sir Thomas Gerard, of Bryn, 
Com., Lancaster, Knight. The children were, first, Lawrence ; second, 
Richard ; third, Nicholas ; fourth, Jerom ; fifth, Ralph ; and two daughters. 
Perhaps some of these were by his second wife, who was Joan or Jane ; 
daughter of Ralph Ardene, of Harden, Esq. This Joan had two husbands 
before Sir John, and a fourth after his decease. 










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Lawrence de Warren, Esq., first son of Sir John, married, first, 
Margaret, daughter of Sir Piers (called also Perkin) Legh, of Lyme, in 
Cheshire, Knight. The children were, first, Cecily; second, Mabil ; third, 
Sir Edward ; fourth, Helen ; fifth, Margaret ; sixth, Dorothy ; seventh, 
Randulph ; eighth, Ann ; ninth, Catharine ; tenth, Jane ; eleventh, Isabel ; 
twelfth, Lawrence ; thirteenth, George ; fourteenth, a second Edward : the 
two last were twins. By his second wife, Sibil, widow of William Honford, 
Esq., he had no children. 

Sir Edward Warren, Knight, first son of Lawrence, married Dorothy, 
daughter of Sir William Booth, of Dunham Massey, Knight. The children 
were, first, Francis, whom he disinherited ; second, John ; third, Lawrence ; 
fourth, Edward; fifth, Edward; sixth, Peter; seventh, Helen; eighth, Joan; 
ninth, Margaret ; tenth, Ethelred ; eleventh, Ann. He died Oct. 12, 1558. 

John Warren, Esq., second son, but heir, of Sir Edward, married Mar- 
garet, daughter of Sir Richard Molineux, of Sefton, in Lancashire, Knight. 
The children were, first, Sir Edward ; second, Lawrence ; third, Richard ; 
fourth, John ; fifth, Ralph ; sixth, William ; seventh, George ; eighth, 
Dorothy ; ninth, Mary ; tenth, Eleanor ; eleventh, Frances ; twelfth, Ann ; 
thirteenth, Lucia. 

Sir Edward Warren, Knight, son of John, was knighted in the Irish 
wars, towards the latter end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. He married, 
first, a daughter of Sir Edward Fitton, of Gawsworth, Knight, who died 
without issue. He married, second, Ann, daughter of Sir William Daven- 
port, of Bramall, Knight ; by whom, first, John, who died young ; second, 
John ; third, Ralph or Randle ; fourth, Humphry ; fifth, William ; sixth, 
Margaret; seventh, second Margaret; eighth, Ann; ninth, Frances; tenth, 
Margaret ; eleventh, Catharine ; twelfth, Dorothy ; thirteenth, Ann. He 


married, third, Susan, sixth daughter of Sir William Booth, of Dunham 
Massey, Knight ; by whom he had eleven children. He died Nov. 13, 

John Warren, Esq., second son and heir of Sir Edward, married Ann, 
daughter of George Ognel, of Bilsley, in Warwickshire ; by whom, first, 
Edward ; second, John ; third, Lawrence. He died June 20, 1621. 

Edward Warren, Esq., eldest son and heir of John, was born May 10, 
1605. From his size and strength, he was known by the soubriquet, "Stag 
Warren." He married, first, Margaret, second daughter of Henry Ardene, 
of Harnden, near Stockport, Esq. ; by whom, first, Ann ; second, John ; 
third, Humphry ; fourth, Henry ; fifth, Charles ; sixth, Edward ; seventh 
and eighth, twins, Eadcliffe and Posthumus, whose premature birth, in 
consequence of injurious treatment of their mother by a party of soldiers, 
caused her death. Edward married, second, Ann, daughter of Hough, and 
widow of Humphrey Booth, of Salford, Gent. ; by whom no issue. He 
died in September, 1687. 

John Warren, Esq., first son and heir of Edward, born Aug. 12, 1630, 
married Ann, daughter and heiress of Hugh Cooper, of Chorley in Lanca- 
shire, Esq. ; by whom, first, John ; second, Margaret ; third, Edward ; fourth, 
Hugh. This John was appointed judge in 1681, and died March 20, 1705. 

Edward Warren, Esq., son and heir of John, born September, 1659 ; 
married, first, Dorothy, daughter and heiress of John Talbot, of Salebury 
and Dinkley, in Lancashire, Esq. ; by whom, first, John ; second, Edward ; 
third, Anna Dorothea ; fourth, Margaret ; fifth, Catharine ; sixth, Talbot ; 
seventh, Mary. Edward Warren married, second, Margaret, sister of 
William Spencer, Esq., of Lancashire ; by whom, first, Spencer ; second, 
Henry ; third, William ; fourth, Mary ; fifth, Alice ; sixth, Eleanor. 


John Warren, Esq., "son and heir of Edward, was born July 15, 1679, 
and died unmarried in 1729." 

Edward Warren, Esq., by death of John, his brother, succeeded to the 
estate. He married Lady Elizabeth, daughter of George, Earl of Chol- 
mondeley ; by whom, first, Sir George ; second, Harriot ; third, Elizabeth. 
In 1731, he served as high sheriff for the county of Chester, and died 
Sept. 7, 1737. 

Sir George Warren, Knight of the Bath, only son and heir of Edward, 
married, first, Jane, daughter and heiress of Thomas Eevel, Esq., of 
Fetcham, in Surrey; by whom Elizabeth Harriot, who married the Right 
Honorable Thomas James Bulkely, Viscount Bulkely, of Cashel, in the 
County of Tipperary, in Ireland. Sir George married, second, Frances, 
daughter of Sir Cecil Bishopp, Baronet of Parham, in Sussex. 

Sir George claimed to be the representative of the Earls of Warren 
and Surrey, and applied to the British Parliament to reinstate him in the 
honors of that dignity, of which the family had been deprived by the 
alienation of the last earl. 



From the Genealogical Table, it appears that, about 1458, Sir Lawrence de 
Warren, Knight, married Isabel, daughter of Robert Legh, of Adlington, in 
Cheshire, Esq. The issue of this marriage were Sir John and William. 
The descendants of the former have been traced. William, the younger 
son of Sir Lawrence, " settled in Caunton, in Nottinghamshire, and was 
possessed of Cressel, Weston, and Medelthorp, all in that county." From 
him was directly descended the distinguished Sir John Borlace Warren, 
Baronet, of Stapleford, in the county of Nottingham. By Ann, his wife, 
William had two sons, John and William. 

John succeeded to his father's estates, and died in 1525, possessed of 
various lands in the county of Nottingham. By Elizabeth his wife, he 
had Gregory and John. 

John, the younger son, removed to Headboro' (Plate IV.), in the parish 
of Ashburton, in Devonshire, where he married, and had issue, Christopher 
Warren ; whose son, William, married Anne, daughter of Thomas Mable, of 
Calstocke, in Cornwall. This Anne being left a widow, married, second, 
William Cutting, of Woodland, in Devonshire. By her first marriage was 
born Christopher Warren, son and heir, who married Alice, daughter of 










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Thomas Webb, of Sidnam, in Devonshire. They had seven children : first, 
Kobert ; second, John ; third, Thomas ; fourth, Richard ; fifth, Christopher ; 
sixth, William ; seventh, Anne. 

Robert, the eldest son, parson of Rame, in Cornwall, married Margaret, 
daughter of Peter Burges, of Petertavy, in Devonshire. 

John Warren came fellow-passenger with Governor Winthrop in the 
"Arabella," and arrived in Salem, June 12, 1630. From Salem the com- 
pany went in search of a suitable place for settlement, and fixed upon 
Charlestown, which they then called Charlton. Finding it difficult to 
supply themselves with good water, on account of their number, they 
accepted the invitation of Rev. William Blackstone, an Episcopal minister, 
who had settled himself in Boston, at the westerly part of the town. He 
told them there was plenty of water in Shawmut, and urged them to 
come over to his peninsula. This invitation they accepted. Winthrop 
and his whole party passed over to Shawmut, afterwards called Boston 
out of respect to the city from which many of them sprang. 

During their residence in Charlestown, Winthrop, who was leader of 
the party which had obtained their charter, and who was, in consequence, 
made governor, wrote a letter to his son in England, dated July 23, 1630, 
in which he mentioned various debts due to him, and sums which he 
wished to have paid. Among the former was a debt from John Warren, 
which seems to have been incurred for money advanced in England 
before their departure, as appears from his having given a bond to 
Governor Winthrop' s son : " John Warren hath appointed money to be 
paid to you by the bond he left with you. He owes beside £10, beside his 
present provisions." 



The name of John Warren appears in the first list of those who took 
the freeman's oath, which was May 18, 1631, though there was a previous 
list formed of those who wished to take the oath in 1630, but for some 
reason did not do so. The number of those who took the oath at the 

same time was one hundred and eighteen. 


This John was probably the father of Peter, whose eldest son was 
named John, and from whom the Boston line of descent is traceable with 
perfect clearness and certainty. 

r-1.- \ - 

Peter Warren, born in 1628, is first mentioned in Suffolk Deeds as 
purchasing land in Boston, on Essex-street, of Theodore Atkinson, March 8, 
1659, and is there styled " marriner." He married, first, Sarah, daughter 
of Robert Tucker, of Dorchester, Aug. 1, 1660; by whom he had, first, 
John, born Sept. 8, 1661 ; second, Joseph, born Feb. 19, 1663 ; third, 
Benjamin, born July 25, 1665; fourth, Elizabeth, born Jan. 4, 1667; fifth, 
Robert, born Dec. 14, 1670 ; sixth, Ebenezer, born Feb. 11, 1672 ; seventh, 
Peter, born April 20, 1676. 

He married, second, Hannah ; by whom he had Hannah, born May 19, 
1680 ; Mary, born Nov. 24, 1683 ; Robert, born Dec. 24, 1684. 

He married, third, Esther. The wives were all members of the Old 
South Church, in Boston ; and in the records of that church are found the 
baptisms of the children. 





He died at Boston, Nov. 15, 1704, aged seventy-six years; and his 
will is in Suffolk Probate. 

Joseph, second son of Peter and Sarah Warren (John, eldest son, being 
probably dead), sold the Essex-street estate in 1714, reserving to the 
surviving widow, Esther, a life-estate. Joseph then removed to Roxbury, 
and built the family house in Warren-street in 1720. (Plate V.) He 
married Deborah, daughter of Samuel Williams, and sister of Rev. John 
Williams, who was taken captive by the Indians in Deerfield, and under- 
went many perilous adventures. He died at Roxbury, July 13, 1729, aged 
sixty-six years, as appears by the records of that town. It appears also, 
by the Boston records, that he was born Feb. 19, 1663.* They had eight 
children ; one of which was Joseph, born Feb. 2, 1696. 

Joseph, son of Joseph and Deborah Warren, was born, as already 
stated, Feb. 2, 1696, and married Mary, daughter of Dr. Samuel Stevens, 
May 29, 1740. He was the first Avho produced the species of russet apple 
with a red blush, called by the name of "Warren Russet" or "Roxbury 
Russet." The children of this marriage were, first, Joseph ; second, 
Samuel; third, Ebenezer; fourth, John. The manner of his decease is 
thus stated in the " Boston News-Letter," from a note dated Roxbury, 
Oct. 25, 1755: — 

" On Wednesday last, a sorrowful accident happened here. As 
Mr. Joseph Warren, of this town, was gathering apples from a tree, 
standing upon a ladder at a considerable distance from the ground, he 

* I am indebted for this fact, which happens to be important, from the coincidence of the Boston and 
Roxbury records, to Hon. James Savage, a gentleman well known for his archaeological researches. 


fell from thence, broke his neck, and expired in a few moments. He was 
esteemed a man of good understanding, — industrious, upright, honest, 
and faithful ; a serious, exemplary Christian ; a useful member of society. 
He was generally respected amongst us, and his death is universally 

He was buried in the Koxbury Burying-ground, where his gravestone 
is still to be seen. His wife, Mary, survived him forty-five years, and died 
in the paternal mansion in 1800. She was a woman of fine under- 
standing and great piety, and was an object of general interest in the 
town of Koxbury. 


Joseph, eldest son of Joseph and Mary, was born at Roxbury, June 11, 
1741. In 1759, he graduated from Harvard College ; in 1760, kept school 
in Eoxbury. He studied medicine in Boston with Dr. James Loyd, and 
settled as a physician in that place. He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Dr. Richard Hooton, of Boston, Sept. 6, 1764 ; by whom he had, first, 
Joseph ; second, Richard ; third, Elizabeth ; fourth, Mary, who married 
Judge Newcomb, of Greenfield, and at her death left one son, Joseph 
Warren Newcomb, Esq., attorney-at-law, now resident in the city of 

Becoming a distinguished patriot, Joseph Warren pronounced the town- 
orations of March 5th, in 1771 and 1775 ; was active in the battle of 
Lexington, and in a combat which terminated in the destruction of a 
British ship-of-war on Chelsea Beach. He was President of the Provincial 
Congress, received a commission of Major-General from that body, and was 
killed at the battle of Bunker Hill, aged thirty-four years and six days, on 
June 17, 1775. At the time of his decease, he was Grand Master of all the 













Lodges of Freemasons in the United States.; The body, which had been 
deposited at Bunker Hill, and had lain there till March, 1776, was then 
exhumed, and recognized by his brothers, from the circumstance that the 
left upper cuspidatus, or eye-tooth, had been secured in its place by a 
golden wire. The remains were then carried to the King's Chapel, and 
an eloquent eulogium pronounced by Hon. Perez Morton. After the 
ceremonials were completed, the remains were deposited in the tomb of 
George Richards Minot, Esq., a friend of the family. In 1825, when the 
foundation of Bunker Hill Monument was laid, it was thought proper to 
discover, identify, and preserve them ; but, those who were concerned in 
the ceremonies of 1776 having passed off the stage, the last place of 
deposit had been forgotten, and was unknown. After a long search, in 
which the writer had an opportunity of recognizing the relics of the amia- 
ble though unfortunate author of the war, Major Pitcairn, the lost remains 
were discovered in the Minot Tomb, in the Granary Burying-ground, at the 
distance of a few steps from the house of the writer. They were recog- 
nized by the condition of the eye-tooth above mentioned, and the mark of 
the fatal bullet behind the left ear ; were carefully collected, deposited in 
a box of hard wood, designated by a silver plate, and placed in the 
Warren Tomb in St. Paul's Church, Boston. The following inscription was 

affixed : — 

Kit tljts STomt) 






17th June, 1775. 


The life of General Warren forms a part of the history of the country ; 
and it is, therefore, unnecessary to give a minute account of it here. 
Sketches may be found in Eees's Encyclopedia, Thatcher's Medical Bio- 
graphy, Loring's One Hundred Boston Orators, and in many periodical 
publications. Mr. Bancroft, the historian, is possessed of facts, of an 
important nature, which relate to his political career, and which will 
probably be displayed in a manner to give fresh interest to the character 
of this devoted patriot. Owing to the kindness of a friend, we have had 
the opportunity of collecting a number of documents from the American 
Archives, which will serve in some measure to illustrate the character of 
the author, and the state of feeling which pervaded the country at the 
time he wrote. (Vide Appendix A.) 

Samuel, second son of Joseph and Mary, remained on the paternal 
farm, in company with his mother, and cultivated it. He never married. 

Ebenezer, third son of Joseph and Mary, was born in Roxbury, Sept. 14, 
1748 ; married Ann Tucker, of Boston, in 1774. He was a member of the 
convention which adopted the Federal Constitution ; a representative in 
the General Court of the town of Foxboro', Mass. ; a Judge of the Common 
Pleas in the county of Norfolk. He had ten children, and died at Foxboro', 
Jan. 1, 1824. 

John, fourth and youngest son of Joseph and Mary Warren, was born 
in 1753. He graduated at Harvard University in 1771 ; and, having 
studied medicine with Dr. Joseph Warren (afterwards General Warren), 
established himself in medical practice in Salem, in 1773. He was surgeon 
in the Essex regiment, which marched to the battle of Lexington in 177o ; 

rom au original picrure !>} 


joined the army in the siege of Boston, immediately on the battle of 
Bunker Hill, as surgeon ; continued in it till after the campaign in the 
Jersies in 1777; subsequently was appointed hospital-surgeon in Boston, 
and continued so during the war. (Vide Appendix B.) He married Abi- 
gail, daughter of Governor John Collins, of Newport, E. I., in 1777. He 
established the first medical school in New England, at Cambridge, in 
1781 ; delivered the first Boston Fourth-of-July Oration in 1783 ; was 
chosen President of the Massachusetts Medical Society in 1803 ; subse- 
quently, of the Humane and Agricultural Societies. He was Grand Master 
of all the Lodges of Freemasons in Massachusetts. 

Dr. Warren was eminent as a literary and political writer ; an eloquent 
lecturer; the author of many valuable papers in the "Communications of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society," in the " New England Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery," and in the " Memoirs of the Academy of Arts and 
Sciences." His last work, published in 1813, was entitled, "A Yiew of 
the Mercurial Practice in Febrile Diseases," and presented many new and 
important original observations on the treatment of the fevers of this 

For two or three years preceding his death, he labored under an 
organic affection of the heart, which finally brought on inflammation of the 
lungs, of which he died April 4, 1815. A eulogy was pronounced before 
the Medical Society by James Jackson, M.D., in the same place and on the 
same day of the month, where, thirty-nine years before, the oration had 
been pronounced over the remains of his brother. Another oration was 
delivered before the Grand Lodge of Masons by Josiah Bartlett, M.D. ; and 
an eloquent sermon was preached in Brattle-street Church by Joseph 
McKean, D.D. His wife, Abigail, died 1832. 


The following inscription to his memory, written by George Tick- 
nor, Esq., is taken from the monument erected in St. Paul's Church, in 
Boston : — 

H. J. 






























The children of Dr. John Warren were, first, John Collins Warren, 
born Aug. 1, 1778 ; second, Joseph ; third, Mary ; fourth, Abigail ; fifth, 
Rebecca ; sixth, Harriet ; seventh, Henry ; eighth, Edward. 


John Collins, the eldest son of John and Abigail Warren, married, 
first, Susan Powell, the daughter of Hon. Jonathan Mason, Nov. 17, 1803 ; 
by whom he had, first, John, born, Sept. 16, 1804, who died young ; second, 
Susan Powell, born July 23, 1806 ; third, Jonathan Mason, born Feb. 5, 
1811 ; fourth, James Sullivan, born Nov. 21, 1812 ; fifth, Mary Collins, 
born Jan. 19, 1816; sixth, Emily, born May 10, 1818. His first wife 
dying June 3, 1841, he married, second, Anna Winthrop, the daughter of 
Governor Thomas L. Winthrop, October, 1843 ; by whom there was no 
issue. She died Dec. 17, 1850. 

Joseph, the second son of John and Abigail Warren, removed to Maine, 
where he married, and had for children, first, Harriet, born in 1805; 
second, Joseph, born in 1807 ; third, John, born in 1809 ; fourth, Edward, 
born in 1811 ; fifth, Mary Ann, born in 1813 ; sixth, Henry Augustus, born 
in 1815 ; seventh, Abby, born in 1817 ; eighth, Frances Adeline, born in 

Mary, third child of John and Abigail Warren, was married to John 
Gorham, M.D., in 1808. The issue of this marriage were, first, Julia, born 
in 1810 ; second, John, born in 1812 ; third, Hallowell Gardiner, born in 
1815; fourth, Francis, born in 1820. 

Rebecca, the fifth child of John and Abigail Warren, was married to 
John B. Brown, M.D., in 1814. The issue of this marriage were, first, 
Buckminster, born in 1819; second, Abby Collins, born in 1822; third, 
Rebecca Warren, born in 1824. 

Harriet, the sixth child of John and Abigail Warren, was married to 
John Prince, Esq. 

Edward, the eighth child of John and Abigail Warren, married Caro- 
line Rebecca, the daughter of Professor Henry Ware, of Cambridge. 




Of the children of John Collins and Susan Powell Warren, the mar- 
riages were as follows : — 

1. Susan Powell Warren was married to Charles Lyman, Esq., on 
April 4, 1827. 

2. Jonathan Mason Warren married Anna Crowninshield, daughter 
of Hon. B. W. Crowninshield, on April 30, 1839. 

3. James Sullivan Warren married Elizabeth Linzee Greene, on 
Aug. 27, 1846. * r 

4. Mary Collins Warren was married to Thomas Dwight, Esq., on 
Oct. 26, 1842. 

5. Emily Warren was married to Joseph Warren Appleton, son 
of Hon. William Appleton, on Oct. 9, 1845. 



Richard Warren, the Pilgrim Father, landed at Plymouth, on the anni- 
versary of the day on which this is written (Dec. 22, 1853) ; and, so far 
as our information goes, descended from the same stock and the same 
branch as that we have undertaken to trace. He was brother of Eobert, 
the parson of Rame, in Cornwall, and of John. Richard's children, 
according to the Genealogical Register, were Joseph, Nathaniel, and 
five daughters. The name of Joseph, eldest son of Richard, was much 
affected by the Boston branch ; and the last Joseph (General Warren) 
gave to one of his sons the name of Richard. These facts render it pro- 
bable that the two divisions considered themselves as originating from 
the same branch.* 

The descendants of Richard have generally inhabited Plymouth and 
the south-eastern part of the State of Massachusetts. Among them have 
been General James Warren, who was a revolutionary officer, and president 
of the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts ; to which last office he was 
chosen immediately on the death of General Joseph Warren, who had occu- 

* I am indebted to N. B. Shurtleff, M.D., an excellent genealogist, for enabling me to correct 
an important error, relating to the immediate progeny of Richard the pilgrim. 



pied the same post. Mrs. Mercy Warren, wife of General James, has left 
a permanent memorial of her talents in one of the best histories of the 
American Revolution, in three volumes, published in 1805. Dr. Winslow 
"Warren is now a distinguished practitioner of medicine in Plymouth, 
Massachusetts, and successor to his grandfather in the Society of Cincin- 
nati. Hon. Charles Henry "Warren, LL.D., now resident in Boston, has 
held the post of Judge of Common Pleas, and many other distinguished 
situations in the Commonwealth. 


iStCijattf 2Uatmt, of Greenwich, who came to Plymouth in 1620, in the " Mayflower," mar- 
ried Elizabeth Marsh, widow. He died in 1628, and his widow in 1673. They had 
issue : — 

I. Natljanicl. 

II. Joseph, m. Priscilla Faunce ; died 1689. 

III. Mary, m. Robert Bartlett. 

IV. Ann, m. Thomas Little. 

V. Sarah, m. John Cooke. 
VI. Elizabeth, m. Richard Church. 
VII. Abigail, m. Anthony Snow. 

jKTatljatttCl, married Sarah Walker. He died in 166T ; and his widow, in 1700. They had 
issue : — 

I. Richard, who m. and died at Middle- 
boro', in 1696, leaving two sons : 
James, who died childless ; and Sa- 
muel, whose descendants, it is be- 
lieved, live in Middleboro', Bridg- 
water, &c. 
II. Jabez, died young. 

III. Sarah, m. Blackwell. 

IV. Hope. 

V. Jane. 

VI. Elizabeth, m. Green. 

VII. Alice, m. Thomas Gibbs. 

VIII. Mercy, m. Jonathan Delano. 

IX. Mary. 

X. Nathaniel, m. Phebe Murdock ; d. in 
1707, without issue. 

XI. John, died young. 

XII. panics. 



3amtS t b. 1665 ; m. 1687, Sarah Doty; d. 1715. They had issue 

I. John, died young. 
II. Edward, died young. 

III. Sarah, m. Charles Little ; and afterwards, 

Nicolas Sever. 

IV. Alice, m. Peleg Ford. 

V. Patience, m. Rev. Joseph Stacy. 

VI. James. 

VII. Hope, m. Nathl. Thomas. 

VIII. Mercy, died unmarried. 

IX. Mary, died unmarried. 

X. Elizabeth, died unmarried. 

$amtU, b. 1700 ; m. 1724, Penelope Winslow, daughter of Hon. Isaac Winslow ; died 1757. 
They had issue : — 

I. Janus, 

II. Ann, died unmarried. 
III. Sarah, m. Hon. "William Sever, son of 
Nicolas Sever. 

IV. Winslow, died young. 
V. Josiah, died young. 

Jattlf S, b. 1726 ; m. 1754, Mercy Otis, daughter of Hon. James Otis, of Barnstable ; died 1808. 
She died in 1814. They had issue : — 

I. James, died unmarried, 1821. 
II. Winslow, killed at St. Clair's defeat, 
1791, unmarried. 

III. Charles, died 1785, umarried. 

IV. p^enrfi. 

V. George, died 1800, unmarried. 

p?entS, b. 1674 ; m. 1791, Mary Winslow, daughter of Pelham Winslow, and a descendant of 
Peregrine White ; died 1828. They had issue : — 

I. Marcia Otis, m. John Torrey. 
II. Winslow, m. Margaret Bartlett. 

III. Pelham Winslow, m. Jeanette Taylor ; 

died 1848. 

IV. Charles Henry, m. Abby B. Hedge. 

V. James, died young 

VI. Mary Ann, died unmarried, 1834. 

VII. Richard, m. Angelina Greenwood. 

VIII. George, m. Elizabeth Hedge. 

IX. Edward James, m. Mary P. Coffin. 



A third division of the family appeared about the period of the settlement 
of Boston, in the town of Watertown. An account of this branch is given 
by Dr. Bond, a distinguished physician of Philadelphia, in his genealogical 
work on the families of Watertown. This valuable production is probably 
unparalleled in this country for its extent, minuteness, and exactness : it 
fills a solid octavo volume with an account of the inhabitants of Watertown. 
Though not yet published, we have been permitted, by the kindness of the 
author, and that of his friend, Charles Brown, Esq., of Boston, to make a 
full examination of its contents. By this work, the Warrens of Watertown 
may be traced to the neighboring towns and counties — particularly in 
Middlesex, Worcester, and Norfolk — in a remarkable way. Some of the 
branches have lately extended into Boston, and from them have sprung 
individuals who have distinguished themselves in various situations. 
Among those now living are Hon. George W. Warren, late Mayor of the 
city of Charlestown, member of the Senate of Massachusetts, and President 
of the Bunker Hill Monument Association ; also George W. Warren, of 
Boston, member of the Common Council, and one of the Trustees of the 
Public Library of the city of Boston. This line is remarkable for two 


things : its concentration in the town it originally occupied, and the great 
multiplication of its families. The first individual of this name, settled 
in Watertown, was called John, which, as we have already said, has been 
most common in the family since the sixth earl. 

In other parts of the United States, particularly in North Carolina, 
this name presents many distinguished persons. None of these, however, 
come within the range of our plan, which is mainly intended to include a 
single branch. 



Professor Usher Parsons, of Providence, Ehode Island, having been for 
some time engaged in writing a life of Sir William Pepperell, has neces- 
sarily collected many facts relating to Sir Peter Warren ; and to him I am 
indebted for a yet unpublished account of the acts of Sir Peter, so far as 
they relate to our country. 

" Sir Peter Warren was a native of Ireland ; and, before the French 
war of 1745, commanded the naval forces employed on the coast of the 
American Provinces. He married the daughter of Governor De Lancy, of 
New York. When war was declared, his squadron was cruising among the 
West India Islands. Governor Shirley, when he projected the expedition 
against Louisbourg, applied to Warren and to the home-government to 
co-operate. This he declined doing, until he should receive orders from the 
admiralty, which, however, soon arrived, when he immediately sailed for 
Boston. But learning on his way there that the provincial forces had 
sailed, he shaped his course for Louisbourg, where he co-operated with 
Pepperell. After its reduction, he was appointed governor of Cape Breton, 
and promoted to an admiral; and Pepperell was appointed a colonel in 
the royal army, and made a baronet. Warren captured many rich prizes 


off Louisburg by stratagem, from which he realized a large fortune. In 
June, 1746, he and Pepperell landed from Louisbourg, on Long Wharf, in 
Boston, and were paraded through State-street, amid military salutes and 
popular shouts, to the old State-house, where the legislature received them 
with a congratulatory address; after which, Warren sailed to the British 
Channel, where he commanded. He acted as agent for the Colonies, in 
receiving and transmitting to the New England Colonies the sum allowed 
as disbursements for the Louisbourg expenses, the commissions for which 
amounted to £7000. Determining to appropriate this for some public 
enterprise, he first proposed to open a Protestant school in Ireland, but 
subsequently presented it to the legislature of Massachusetts to build a 
public hall in Cambridge. About this time, he purchased an extensive 
tract of land on the Mohawk Eiver, and sent to Ireland for his nephew, 
William Johnson, to take charge of it. He then applied to the legislature 
of Massachusetts to relinquish its right to the donation, in order that he 
might appropriate it to the founding of a school for the instruction of 
Mohawk children, which was done accordingly. 

" Johnson, the nephew, became a distinguished general at Lake 
George and at Niagara, and was created a baronet ; and his son succeeded 
to his title and estates on the Mohawk. At the outbreak of the Ee vo- 
lution, became a loyalist and a troublesome enemy, making incursions 
from Canada upon his old neighbors on the Mohawk. His estates were, 
of course, confiscated. 

" Sir Peter Warrjn commanded a ship-of-the-line in Lord Anson's 
fleet, which fell in with a French fleet of thirty-eight sail on the third 
of May, 1747, and captured six of their men-of-war, and a rich East India 
fleet, which they were convoying. For this service, Warren was made a 



baronet. He died at Westbury, in England, in 1752, greatly lamented by 
the colonists." 

A full-length portrait of Sir Peter is in the gallery of the Athenseum, 
at Portsmouth, N. H. 

Mr. Burke, author of the "Peerage," &c., has informed Mr. Somerby 
that Sir Peter was of the family of Warrens of Poynton, — the same with 
which the Boston branch is connected. This accords with the statement 
made by Dr. John Warren, on the authority of his mother, who was 
well acquainted with Sir Peter, that, though a native of Ireland himself, 
he was derived from the same stock as the Boston and Eoxbury Warrens ; 
viz., from the Poynton branch. 



The following account of a distinguished member of the Warren family, 
whose name is enrolled upon the pages of history, is extracted from a 
recent English work of high authority : — 

"Warren (Sir John Borlase), a distinguished admiral, was born in 
1754, at the family seat of Stapleford, in Nottinghamshire, and educated 
at Winchester School, whence he ran off, and joined a king's ship ; but, 
after serving for some time in the North Sea, he returned to England, and 
entered himself of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. In 1775, he was created 
a baronet. In 1781, he received his commission as post-captain. On the 
breaking out of the French war of 1793, he was appointed to the 'Flora' 
frigate, and received the command of a squadron, with which he so severely 
harrassed the coast of France, that, for his services, he received, in the 
following year, the ' Riband of the Bath.' In the summer of 1795, he 
acted as commodore of the division of ships which effected the debarkation 
at Quiberon Bay, intended to assist the royalists of La Vendee. His flag 
was then flying on board 'La Pomone.' In 1797, he removed into the 
'Canada' (seventy-four), with which he joined the Brest fleet, under Lord 


Bridport; and, on the coast of Ireland, he fell in with the French naval 
force intended for the invasion of that country, and obtained over it a sig- 
nal victory, capturing the whole squadron, consisting of a ship-of-the-line, 
'La Hoche,' and three frigates (11th October, 1798). For this service, he 
received the thanks of parliament ; and, on the next promotion, he was 
made a ' Rear- Admiral of the Blue.' After the peace of Amiens, he was 
made a privy councillor, and he was soon after sent, as ambassador 
extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary, to St. Petersburgh, where he 
ably conducted the important and delicate negotiations respecting the 
retention of Malta. He died in 1822. Sir John Borlase Warren is said to 
be the author of 'A Yiew of the Naval Force of Great Britain,' &c, 
published anonymously in 1791, 8vo. He had sat in four parliaments, 
being returned, in those of 1774 and 1780, for the borough of Great Mar- 
low; and in those of 1796 and 1802, for the town of Nottingham." 



Samuel Wareen, Esq., F.R.S., a distinguished barrister in London, lias 
excited public interest by depicting character in sickness and health. His 
chief works are, " Ten Thousand a Year," " Diary of a Physician," " Duties 
of Solicitors," " Lily and the Bee," " Now and Then." 



A. — Page 48. 


Boston, New England, 
March 19, 1766. 

Dear Sir, — I have not had the pleasure of a 
line from you since you left this country. I 
wrote to you soon after I knew of your arrival 
in England, and I have not at any time been 
negligent in inquiring concerning you, when- 
ever an opportunity presented. I have with 
great satisfaction heard of that agreeable life 
which you lead amidst all the gaieties and 
diversions of that jovial city, London; but I 
received a peculiar pleasure from the intel- 
ligence which I have lately had of your 
happy marriage with a lady of noble birth and 
every accomplishment, both natural and ac- 
quired. Accept the sincerest wishes of your 
long absent (but I hope not forgotten) friend, 
that you may long enjoy, with your charming 
consort, that unequalled happiness which must 
arise from an union of persons so amiable. 

Perhaps it may not be disagreeable at this 
time to hear something of the present state of 

your native country. Never has there been a 
time, since the first settlement of America, in 
which the people had so much reason to be 
alarmed as the present. The whole Conti- 
nent is inflamed to the highest degree. I 
believe this country may be esteemed as truly 
loyal in their principles as any in the universe ; 
but the strange project of levying a stamp-duty, 
and of depriving the people of the privilege of 
trials by juries, has roused their jealousy and 
resentment. They can conceive of no liberty 
where they have lost the power of taxing 
themselves, and when all controversies be- 
tween the crown and the people are to be 
determined by the opinion of one dependent ; 
and they think that slavery is not only the 
greatest misfortune, but that it is also the 
greatest crime (if there is a possibility of 
escaping it). You are sensible that the inhabi- 
tants of this country have ever been zealous 
lovers of their civil and religious liberties ; for 
the enjoyment of these they fought battles, 
left a pleasant and populous country, and ex- 
posed themselves to all the dangers and hard- 



ships in this new world, and their laudable 
attachment to freedom has hitherto been trans- 
mitted to their posterity ; moreover, in all 
new countries (and especially in this, which 
was settled by private adventurers), there is a 
more equal division of property amongst the 
people ; in consequence of which, their influ- 
ence and authority must be nearly equal, and 
every man will think himself deeply interested 
in the support of public liberty. Freedom and 
equality is the state of nature ; but slavery is 
the most unnatural and violent state that can be 
conceived of, and its approach must be gradual 
and imperceptible. In many old countries, 
where, in a long course of years, some particu- 
lar families hate been able to acquire a very 
large share of property, from which must arise 
a kind of aristocracy, — that is, the power and 
authority of some persons or families is exer- 
cised in proportion to the decrease of the 
independence and property of the people in 
general. Had America been prepared in this 
manner for the stamp-act, it might, perhaps, 
have met with a more favorable reception ; but 
it is absurd to attempt to impose so cruel a 
yoke on a people who are so near to the state 
of original equality, and who look upon their 
liberties not merely as arbitrary grants, but as 
their unalienable eternal rights, purchased by 
the blood and treasure of their ancestors; 
which liberties, though granted and received 
as acts of favor, could not, without manifest 
injustice, have been refused, and cannot now, or 
at any time hereafter, be revoked. Certainly, 
if the connection was rightly understood, Great 
Britain would be convinced, that, without lay- 
ing arbitrary taxes upon her Colonies, she may 
and does reap such advantages as ought to 
satisfy her. Indeed, it enrages the more judi- 
cious people on this side the water, that the late 

minister was so unacquainted with the state of 
America and the manners and circumstances • 
of the people ; or, if he was acquainted, it still 
surprises them to find a man in his high sta- 
tion so ignorant of nature and of the opera- 
tions of the human mind, as madly to provoke 
the resentment of millions of men who would 
esteem death with all its tortures preferable to 
slavery. Most certainly, in whatever light the 
stamp-act is viewed, an uncommon want of 
policy is discoverable. If the real and only 
motive of the minister was to raise money 
from the Colonies, that method should un- 
doubtedly have been adopted which was least 
grievous to the people : instead of this, the 
most unpopular that could be imagined is 
chosen. If there was any jealousy of the Colo- 
nies, and the minister designed by this act 
more effectually to secure their dependence on 
Great Britain, the jealousy was first ground- 
less ; but, if it had been founded on good rea- 
sons, could any thing have been worse calcu- 
lated to answer this purpose ? Could not the 
minister have found out, either from history or 
from his own observation, that the strength 
of any country depended on its being united 
within itself? Has he not by this act brought 
about what the most zealous colonist could 
never have expected ? The Colonies until now 
were ever at variance, and foolishly jealous of 
each other ; they are now, by the refined policy 
of Mr. , united for their common de- 
fence against what they believe to be oppres- 
sion ; nor will they soon forget the weight 
which this close union gives them. The im- 
possibility of accounting in any other way for 
the imposition of the stamp-duty has induced 
some to imagine that the minister designed by 
this act to force the Colonies into a rebellion, 
and from thence to take occasion to treat them 



with severity, and by military power reduce 
them to servitude ; but this supposes such a 
monstrous degree of wickedness, that charity 
forbids us to conclude him guilty of so black 
a villainy. But admitting this to have been 
his aim, should he not have considered that 
every power in Europe looks with envy on the 
Colonies which Great Britain enjoys in Ame- 
rica ? could he suppose that the powerful and 
politic France would be restrained by treaties, 
when so fair an opportunity offered for the 
recovery of their ancient possessions at least ? 
was he so ignorant of nature as not to know, 
that, when the rage of the people is raised by 
oppression to such a height as to break out in 
rebellion, any new alliance would be preferred 
to the miseries which a conquered country 
must necessarily expect to suffer ? and would 
no power in Europe take advantage of such 
an occasion ? And, above all, did he not 
know that his royal, benevolent master, when 
he discovered his views, would detest and 
punish him ? But, whatever was proposed by 
the stamp-act, of this I am certain, that the 
regard which the Colonies still bear to his 
majesty arises more from an exalted idea of 
his majesty's integrity and goodness of heart, 
than from any prudent conduct of his late 

I have wrote, sir, much more than I in- 
tended when I first sat down ; but I hope you 
will pardon my prolixity upon so important a 

I am, sir, your most sincere friend and hum- 
ble servant, 

Joseph "Warren. 

To Mr. Edmund Dana. 

p # S. — I hope for the favor of a line from 
you the first opportunity. 


Boston, Sept. 24, 1774. 

As I have been informed that the conduct 
of some few persons of the Episcopal denomi- 
nation, in maintaining principles inconsistent 
with the rights and liberties of mankind, has 
given offence to some of the zealous friends of 
this country, I think myself obliged to publish 
the following extract of a letter, dated Sept. 9, 
1774, which I received from my worthy and 
patriotic friend, Mr. Samuel Adams, a member 
of the Congress now sitting in Philadelphia ; 
by which it appears, that, however injudicious 
some individuals may have been, the gentle- 
men of the established Church of England 
are men of the most just and liberal sentiments, 
and are high in the esteem of the most sensible 
and resolute defenders of the rights of the 
people of this continent ; and I earnestly re- 
quest my countrymen to avoid every thing 
which our enemies may make use of to preju- 
dice our Episcopal brethren against us, by 
representing us as disposed to disturb them in 
the free exercise of their religious privileges, 
to which we know they have the most un- 
doubted claim ; and which, from a real regard 
to the honor and interest of my country and 
the rights of mankind, I hope they will enjoy 
as long as the name of America is known in 

the world. 

J. Warren. 

"After settling the mode of voting, which 
is by giving each colony an equal voice, it was 
agreed to open the business with prayer. As 
many of our warmest friends are members of 
the Church of England, I thought it prudent, 
as well on that as some other accounts, to move 
that the service should be performed by a 



clergyman of that denomination. Accordingly, 
the lessons of the day and prayer were read by 
the Rev. Dr. Duche', who afterwards made a 
most excellent extemporary prayer, by which 
he discovered himself to be a gentleman of 
>ensc and piety, and a warm advocate for the 
religions and civil rights of America." 


Boston, Nov. 21, 1774. 

Dear Sir, — As nothing interesting, which 
I am at liberty to communicate, has taken 
place since your departure from home, except 
such matters as you could not fail of being 
informed of by the public papers', I have de- 
ferred writing to you, knowing that, upon 
your first arrival in London, you would be 
greatly engaged in forming your connections 
with the friends of this country to whom you 
have been recommended. Our friends who 
have been at the Continental Congress are in 
high spirits on account of the union which 
prevails throughout the Colonies. It is the 
united voice of America to preserve their free- 
dom, or lose their lives in defence of it. Their 
resolutions are not the effect of inconsiderate 
rashness, but the sound result of sober inquiry 
and deliberation. I am convinced that the 
true spirit of liberty was never so universally 
diffused through all ranks and orders of peo- 
ple, in any country on the face of the earth, 
as it now is through North America. 

The Provincial Congress met at Concord at 
the time appointed : about two hundred and 
sixty members were present. You would 
have thought yourself in an assembly of 

Spartans or ancient Romans, had you been a 
witness to the ardor which inspired those who 
spoke upon the important business they were 
transacting. An injunction of secrecy prevents 
my giving any particulars of their transactions, 
except such as by their express order were 
published in the papers ; but, in general, you 
may be assured that they approved themselves 
the true representatives of a wise and brave 
people, determined at all events to be free. I 
know I might be indulged in giving you an 
account of our transactions, were I sure this 
would get safe to you ; but I dare not, as the 
times are, risk s,o important intelligence. 

Next Wednesday, the 23d instant, we shall 
meet again according to adjournment. All 
that I can safely communicate to you shall be 
speedily transmitted. I am of opinion, that 
the dissolution of the British Parliament, which 
we were acquainted with last week, together 
with some favorable letters received from Eng- 
land, will induce us to bear the inconvenience 
of living without government, until we have 
some further intelligence of what may be 
expected from England. It will requre, how- 
ever, a very masterly policy to keep the 
Province for any considerable time longer in 
its present state. The town of Boston is by 
far the most moderate part of the Province : 
they are silent and inflexible. They hope for 
relief; but they have found from experience 
that they' can bear to suffer more than their 
oppressors^ or themselves thought possible. 
They feel the injuries they receive ; they are 
the frequent subject of conversation ; but they 
take an honest pride in being singled out by 
a tyrannical administration as the most deter- 
mined enemies to arbitrary power : they know 
that their merits, not their crimes, have made 
them the objects of ministerial vengeance. 



We endeavor to live as peaceably as possible 
with the soldiery ; but disputes and quarrels 
often arise between the troops and the inhabi- 

General Gage has made very few new 
manoeuvres since you left us. He has indeed 
rendered the intrenchments at the entrance of 
the town as formidable as he possibly could. 
I have frequently been sent to him on Com- 
mittees, and have several times had private 
conversations with him. I have thought him 
a man of honest, upright principles, and one 
desirous of accommodating the difference be- 
tween Great Britain and her Colonies in a just 
and honorable way. He did not appear to be 
desirous of continuing the quarrel in order 
to make himself necessary, which is too often 
the case with persons employed in public 
affairs ; but a copy of a letter, via Philadelphia, 
said to be written from him to Lord North, 
gives a very different cast to his character. 
His answer to the Provincial Congress, which 
was certainly ill-judged, I suppose was the 
work of some of that malicious group of 
harpies, whose disappointments make them 
desirous to urge the Governor to drive every 
thing to extremes ; but in this letter (if it be 
genuine) he seems to court the office of a 
destroyer of the liberties of the people of this 
Province. But you have doubtless read the 
paper, and thought with indignation on its 

I wish to know of you how affairs stand in 
Great Britain, and what was the principal 
motive of the dissolution of Parliament. If 
the late acts of Parliament are not to be 
repealed, the wisest step for both countries is 
fairly to separate, and not spend their blood 
and treasure in destroying each other. It is 
barely possible that Britain may depopulate 

North America ; but I trust in God she never 
can conquer the inhabitants. And if the cruel 
experiment is made, I am sure, whatever for- 
tunes may attend America, that Britain will 
curse the wretch, who, to stop the mouths of 
her ravenous pack of dependents, bartered 
away the wealth and glory of her empire. 

I have not time to say more at present than 
to assure you, that, from this time, you may 
expect to hear from me, news or no news, by 
every vessel ; and that my earnest wish is, that 
your abilities and integrity may be of eminent 
service to your country. 

I am, dear sir, your most obedient servant, 

Joseph Warren. 

To Josiah Qdincy, Jun. 

FEB. 1, 1775. 

For Boston, in the County of Suffolk. — 
Hon. Thomas Cushing, Esq., Hon. John Han- 
cock, Esq., Mr. Samuel Adams, Dr. Joseph 
Warren, Dr. Benjamin Church, Mr. Oliver 
Wendall, Mr. John Pitts. 


Boston, Feb. 20, 1775. 
Dear Sir, — My friend Mr. Adams favored 
me with the sight of your last letter. I am 
sincerely glad of your return to England, as I 
think your assistance was never more wanted 
there than at present. It is truly astonishing 
that the administration should have a doubt 
of the resolution of the Americans to make the 
last appeal, rather than submit to wear the 
yoke prepared for their necks. We have 



waited with a degree of patience which is 
seldom to be met with ; but I will venture to 
assert, that there has not been any great alloy 
of cowardice, though both friends and enemies 
seem to suspect us of want of courage. I trust 
the event, which I confess I think is near at 
hand, Avill confound our enemies, and rejoice 
those who wish well to us. It is time for 
Britain to take some serious steps towards a 
reconciliation with her colonies. The people 
here are weary of watching the measures of 
those who are endeavoring to enslave them. 
They say they have been spending their time 
for ten years in counteracting the plans of their 
adversaries ; and many of them begin to think 
that the difference between them will never be 
amicably settled, but that they shall always 
be subject to affronts from the caprice of every 
British minister. They even sometimes speak 
of an open rupture with Great Britain, as a 
state preferable to the present uncertain condi- 
tion of affairs ; and, although it is true that the 
people have yet a very warm affection for the 
British nation, yet it sensibly decays. They 
are loyal subjects to the king ; but they con- 
ceive that they do not swerve from their 
allegiance, by opposing any measures taken 
by any man or set of men to deprive them of 
their liberties. They conceive that they are 
the king's enemies, who would destroy the 
constitution ; for the king is annihilated when 
the constitution is destroyed. 

It is not yet too late to accommodate the 
dispute amicably ; but I am of opinion, that, 
if once General Gage should lead his troops 
into the country, with a design to enforce the 
late acts of Parliament, Great Britain may take 
her leave, — at least of the New England 
Colonies, and, if I mistake not, of all America. 
If there is any wisdom in the nation, God 

grant it may be speedily called forth. Every 
day, every hour, widens the breach. A Rich- 
mond, a Chatham, a Shelburne, a Camden, 
with their noble associates, may yet repair it ; 
and it is a work which none but the greatest 
of men can conduct. May you be successful 
and happy in your labors for the public safety ! 

I am, sir, with great respect, 

Your very humble servant, 

Joseph Warren. 


Last Monday, Dr. Warren delivered an 
oration against the effects of standing armies in 
free governments, &c. There was a prodigious 
concourse of people present ; and amongst 
them, in the most conspicuous part of the 
house, about forty officers. The oration was 
spirited, yet free from particular reflections on 
mercenary troops. 

The red-coated gentry behaved with tolera- 
ble decency, till after the doctor had finished ; 
when, taking exception at the words of the 
vote that was put for the appointment of an 
orator for the next year, one of them cried 
out, " Fie ! fie ! " This exclamation was se- 
conded by two or three others ; and, the people 
thinking that it was the cry of fire, great con- 
fusion was occasioned; many of the women 
jumped out of the windows, arrd much mis- 
chief would have ensued, had not the gen- 
tlemen in the desk very strenuously exerted 
themselves to restore quiet, which, after some 
time, they effected. 

The pronouncing this oration must be con- 



strued as a public affront to Mr. Gage in both 
his stations, — as general of the army and 
governor of the Province. In the first, as it 
was a reflection, in general, on standing armies 
in time of peace ; and, in the other, as it was 
in a town-meeting, held directly contrary *to an 
act of parliament ; to enforce which, his Excel- 
lency came to Boston. Nor is it a small proof 
of the spirit of the inhabitants, who, in defi- 
ance of a fleet and army, with the muzzles of 
their guns at their doors, dared to tell them 
that they were an illegal body of men, and the 
tools of tyrants. 


Boston, April 3, 1775. 

Dear Sir, — Your favor of the 21st of De- 
cember came opportunely to hand, as it ena- 
bled me to give the Provincial Congress, now 
sitting at Concord, a just view of the measures 
pursued by the tools of the administration ; 
and effectually to guard them against that state 
of security into which many have endeavored 
to lull them. If we ever obtain a redress of 
grievances from Great Britain, it must be by 
the influence of those illustrious personages, 
whose virtue now keeps them out of power. 
The king never will bring them into power, 
until the ignorance and frenzy of the present 
administration makes the throne on which he 
sits shake under him. If America is a humble 
instrument of the salvation of Britain, it will 
give us the sincerest joy ; but if Britain must 
lose her liberty, she must lose it alone. Amer- 
ica must and will be free. The contest may 
be severe, — the end will be glorious. We 
would not boast ; but we think, united and pre- 
pared as we are, we have no reason to doubt of 

success, if we should be compelled to the last 
appeal ; but we mean not to make that appeal 
until we can be justified in doing it in the 
sight of God and man. Happy shall we be if 
the mother-country will allow us the free en- 
joyment of our rights, and indulge us in the 
pleasing employment of aggrandizing her ! 

The members of the Continental Congress 
are almost all chosen by the several Colonies. 
Indeed, if any Colony should neglect to choose 
members, it would be ruinous to it ; as all 
intercourse would immediately cease between 
that Colony and the whole Continent. 

The first brigade of the army marched about 
four miles out of town three days ago, un- 
der the command of a brigadier -general (Earl 
Percy) ; but, as they marched without baggage 
or artillery, they did not occasion so great 
an alarm as they otherwise would. Never- 
theless, great numbers, completely armed, col- 
lected in the neighboring towns ; and it is the 
opinion of many, that had they marched eight 
or ten miles, and attempted to destroy any 
magazines, or abuse the people, not a man of 
them would have returned to Boston. The 
Congress immediately took proper measures 
for restraining any unnecessary effusion of 
blood ; and also passed proper resolves respect- 
ing the army, if they should attempt to come 
out of the town with baggage and artillery. 

I beg leave to recommend to your notice 
Mr. Dana, the bearer hereof (a gentleman of 
the law), a man of sense and probity, a true 
friend of his country, of a respectable family 
and fortune. 

May Heaven bless you, and reward your 
labors with success ! I am, sir, with great re- 
spect, your most obedient, humble servant, 

Jos. Warren. 

To Arthur Lee, Esq., London. 




Boston, April 3, 1775. 

Sir, — Although I have not the pleasure 
either of a personal or epistolary acquaintance 
with you, I have taken the liberty of sending 
you, by Mr. Dana, a pamphlet, which I wish 
was more deserving of your notice. The abi- 
lity and firmness with which you have de- 
fended the rights of mankind, and the liberties 
of this country in particular, have rendered 
you dear to all America. May you soon see 
your enemies deprived of the power of injur- 
ing you, and your friends in a situation to 
discover the grateful sense they have of your 
exertions in the cause of freedom ! 

I am, sir, 

With the greatest esteem and respect, 

Your most obedient, humble servant, 

Joseph Warren. 

Dr. Franklin. 


Cambridge, April 20, 1775. 
Sir, — The unhappy situation into which 
this Colony is thrown, gives the greatest un- 
easiness to every man who regards the welfare 
of the empire, or feels for the distresses of his 
fellow-men ; but even now much may be done 
to alleviate the misfortunes that cannot be en- 
tirely remedied ; and I think it of the utmost 
importance to us, that our conduct be such as 
that the contending parties may entirely rely 
upon the honor and integrity of each other for 
the punctual performance of any agreement 

that shall be made between them. Your Ex- 
cellency knows very well, I believe, the part I 
have taken in public affairs ; I ever scorned 
disguise. I think I have done my duty ; some 
may think otherwise ; but be assured, sir, as 
far as my influence goes, every thing which 
can be reasonably required of us to do, shall be 
done ; every thing promised shall be reli- 
giously performed. I should now be very 
glad to know from you, sir, how many days 
you desire may be allowed for such as desire 
to remove to Boston with their effects, and 
what time you will allow the people in Boston 
for their removal. When I have received that 
information, I will repair to Congress, and 
hasten, as far as I am able, the issuing a pro- 
clamation. I beg leave to suggest, that the 
condition of only admitting thirty wagons at a 
time into the town appears to me very incon- 
venient, and will prevent the good effects of a 
proclamation intended to be issued for encour- 
aging all wagoners to assist in removing the 
effects from Boston with all possible speed. If 
your Excellency will be pleased to take the 
matter into consideration, and favor me as soon 
as may be with an answer, it will lay me under 
a great obligation, as it so nearly concerns the 
welfare of my friends in Boston. I have 
many things which I wish to say to your Ex- 
cellency, and most sincerely wish I had broken 
through the formalities which I thought due to 
your rank, and freely have told you all I knew 
or thought of public affairs ; and I must ever 
confess, whatever may be the event, that you 
generously gave me such an opening as I now 
think I ought to have embraced ; but the true 
cause of my not doing it was the knowledge I 
had of the treachery of many persons around 
you, who I supposed had gained your entire 
confidence. I am, &c. 




Boston, April 23, 1775. 

Sir, — The following proceedings contain 
the agreement made between his Excellency 
General Gage and the town of Boston. You 
are informed it is the earnest desire of the 
inhabitants, that such persons as are inclined 
to remove into the town with their effects may 
be permitted so to do without molestation ; and, 
they having appointed us as a committee to write 
to you on this subject, we hope this request 
will be complied with, as the town, in a very 
full meeting, was unanimous in this and every 
other vote relating to this matter ; and we 
beg the favor of as speedy an answer as may 

We are, most respectfully, 

Your obedient, humble servants, 

James Bowdoin. 
John Scollat. 
Tim. Newell. 
Thos. Marshall. 
Samuel Austin. 

John Pitts. 


Alexander Hill. 
Henderson Inches. 
Edward Payne. 

To Dr. Joseph Warren. 


Cambridge, April 27, 1775. 

My dear Sir, — Our friend Quincy just lived 
to come on shore to die in his own country ; 
he expired yesterday morning. His virtues 
rendered him dear, and his abilities useful to 
his country. 

The measures of the administration have at 
length brought matters to a crisis. I think it 
probable that the rage of this people, excited 

by the most clear view of the designs of the 
administration, and the effusion of the blood 
of their countrymen, will lead them to attack 
General Gage, and burn the ships in the 

Lord Chatham and our friends must make 
up the breach immediately, or never. If any 
thing terrible takes place, it will not do to talk 
of calling the Colonies to account for it ; but 
it must be attributed to the true cause, — the 
unheard-of provocation given to this people. 
They will never talk of accommodation until 
the present ministry are entirely removed. 
You may depend the Colonies will sooner suf- 
fer depopulation than come into any measures 
with them. 

The next news from England must be con- 
ciliatory, or the connection between us ends, 
however fatal the consequences may be. Pru- 
dence may yet alleviate the misfortunes, and 
calm the convulsions, into which the empire is 
thrown by the conduct of the present adminis- 
tration. May God Almighty direct you ! If 
any thing is proposed which may be for the 
honor and safety of Great Britain and these 
Colonies, my utmost efforts will not be wanting 
to effect a reconciliation. 

I am, in the utmost haste, surrounded by 
fifteen or twenty thousand men, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Jos. Warren. 

To Arthur Lee, Esq., London. 

P. S. — The narrative sent to Dr. Franklin 
contains a true state of facts ; but it was diffi- 
cult to make the people willing that any no- 
tice should be taken of the matter by way 
of narrative, unless the army and navy were 
taken or driven away. J. W. 





Boston, April 29, 1775. 

Sir, — We wrote you yesterday, and were 
in hopes of an answer; more especially as we 
find you have this day wrote a letter to town, 
part of which has been communicated to the 
Committee, upon which we beg leave to ob- 
serve, that it is very desirable to us that you 
would comply with our request of making pro- 
clamation or notification to such persons as 
may incline to come into Boston with their 
effects, as it must expedite the removal of our 
inhabitants, with their effects, from the town 
of Boston ; but to determine how many days 
it will be necessary to effect this removal, is 
utterly impracticable. Those persons who are 
here from the country, and have left their 
effects behind, we desire may be permitted to 
send their servants to put them up and convey 
them to Boston without molestation ; and that 
the selectmen may be informed to whom they 
may direct such persons to apply for permits. 

You will receive this by the hands of Mr. 
Payne, who being one of the Committee, we 
refer you to him for more particular information. 

We are, very respectfully, 

Your most humble servants, 

John Scollay. 
ezek. goldthwait. 
Thos. Marshall. 

To Dr. Joseph Warren, 
Chairman of the Committee of Congress. 

Saml. Austin. 
Edw. Payne. 
John Pitts. 


Boston, May 1, 1775. 
Sir, — "We wrote you the 29th ultimo, per 
Mr. Edward Payne, who left the town yester- 
day morning. As General Gage thought that 

he could not, in his official capacity, corre- 
spond with you on the subject you imparted to 
him, he desired us to write you on it ; in con- 
formity to which, we say that you have, in a 
great measure, adopted the same sentiments in 
your resolves, which we are this day favored 
with in yours of yesterday, saving that part of 
it that respects persons being sent from hence 
to carry into execution the desires of any 
of the inhabitants of the Province now in 
Boston, respecting their bringing their effects 
from the different parts orf the government 
where their dwelling-places are. In order to 
remove all difficulties, we do propose to give 
to persons to be sent from hence, either ser- 
vants or others, passes to the office you have 
established, desiring they may be furnished 
with passes for so long a time as may be proper 
for them, according to the distance they go ; 
that they may have liberty to procure any help 
necessary for the conveyance of said effects, 
and that they may pass and repass unmolested. 

If the above be agreeable, please to %vor us 
with an answer by the bearer. 

We are, with respect, and the greatest re- 
gard and sincere affection, sir, your most hum- 
ble, obedient servants, 

John Scollay. Samuel Austin. 

Thos. Marshall. John Pitts. 
Timothy Newell. 

To Dr. Joseph Warren 


Hartford, May 4, 1775. 

Sir, — Your letter of the 2d of May instant 

is received. You may be informed, from our 

letter to Brigadier-General Putnam, what is 

already done by our General Assembly, and 



need not fear our firmness, deliberation, and 
unanimity to pursue the measures which ap- 
pear best for our common defence and safety, 
and in no degree to relax our vigilant prepa- 
rations for that end, and to act in union and 
concert with our sister-colonies, and shall be 
cautious of trusting promises which may be in 
the power of any one to evade. We hope no 
ill consequences will attend our embassy to 
General Gage. 

, Should be glad to be furnished with the 
evidences, duly authenticated, concerning the 
attack on the 19th of April last, at Lexington, 
which it is presumed you have taken. Though 
we are at a distance from the distressing scene 
before your eyes, yet are most sensibly affected 
with the alarming relations of them. 

I am, in behalf of the governor and com- 



Your most obedient, humble servant, 

Jonathan Trumbull. 

To the Hon. Joseph Warren, Esq. 


Cambridge, May 16, 177&. 

My dear Sir, — Every thing here continues 
the same as at the period of my writing a short 
time ago. Our military operations go on in 
a very spirited manner. General Gage had a 
reinforcement of about six hundred marines 
the day before yesterday ; but this gives very 
little concern here. It is not expected that he 
will sally out of Boston at present ; and, if he 
does, he will but gratify thousands who im- 
patiently wait to avenge the blood of their 
countrymen. The attempt he has made to 

throw the odium of the first commencement 
of hostilities on the people here, has operated 
very much to his disadvantage, as so many cre- 
dible people were eye-witnesses to the whole 
affair, whose testimonies are justly supposed 
of infinitely greater weight than any thing he 
has brought or can bring in support of his 
assertion. My private opinion is, that he is 
really deceived in this matter, and is led (by 
his officers and some others, who are natives of 
this country, and who are now shut up with 
him in Boston) to believe that our people actu- 
ally began the firing ; but my opinion is only 
for myself; most people are satisfied not only 
that he knows the regulars began the fire, but 
also that he gave his orders to the commanding 
officer to do it. Thus by attempting to clear 
the troops from what every one is sure they 
were guilty of, he has brought on strong sus- 
picions that he himself is guilty of having 
preconcerted the mischief done by them. In- 
deed, his very unmanly conduct, relative to the 
people of Boston, in detaining many of them, 
and contriving new excuses for delaying their 
removal after they had given up their fire- 
arms, upon a promise of being suffered to 
leave town and carry with them their effects, 
has much lessened his character, and confirmed 
former suspicions. 

The Continental Congress is now sitting. I 
suppose, before I hear from you again, a new 
form of government will be established in this 
Colony. Great Britain must now make the 
best she can of America. The folly of her 
minister has brought her into this situation. 
If she has strength sufficient even to depopu- 
late the Colonies, she has not strength sufficient 
to subjugate them. However, we can yet, 
without injuring ourselves, offer much to her. 
The great national advantages derived from 



the Colonies, may, I hope, yet be reaped by 
her from us. The plan for enslaving us, if it 
had succeeded, would only have put it in the 
power of the administration to provide for a 
number of their unworthy dependents, whilst 
the nation would have been deprived of the 
most essential benefits which might have arisen 
from us by commerce ; and the taxes raised in 
America would, instead of easing the mother- 
country of her burdens, only have been em- 
ployed to bring her into bondage. 

I cannot precisely tell you what will become 
of General Gage ; I imagine he will at least 
be kept closely shut up in Boston. Perhaps 
you will very soon hear something further rela- 
tive to these things. One thing, I can assure 
you, has very great weight with us : we fear, if 
we push this matter as far as we think we are 
able, — to the destruction of the troops and 
ships-of-war, — we shall expose Great Britain 
to those invasions from foreign powers, which 
we suppose it will be difficult for her to repel. 

In fact, you must have a change in men and 
measures, or be ruined. The truly noble Rich- 
mond, Rockingham, Chatham, Shelburne, 
with other lords, and the virtuous and sensi- 
ble minority in the House of Commons, must 
take the lead. The confidence we have in them 
will go a great way ; but I must tell you, that 
those terms which would readily have been 
accepted before our countrymen were slain, 
and we in consequence compelled to take arms, 
will not do now. 

Every thing in my power to serve the united 
interest of Great Britain, shall be done ; and I 
pray that you, your brother, and Mr. Sayre 
(to whom I beg you would make my most re- 
spectful compliments), would write fully, freely, 
and speedily to me, and let me know what our 
great and good friends in the House of Com- 

mons think expedient and practicable to be 

God forbid that the nation should be so 
infatuated as to do any thing further to irri- 
tate the Colonies ; if they should, the colonies 
will sooner throw themselves into the arms of 
any other power on earth, than ever consent to 
an accommodation with Great Britain. That 
patience which I frequently told you would be 
at last exhausted, is no longer to be expected 
from us. Danger and war are become pleas- 
ing ; and injured virtue is now armed to avenge 

I am, my dear sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Jos. "Warren. 

To Arthur Lee, Esq.. London. 

P. S. — Please to let Mr. Sayre and Sheriff 
Lee know that I shall write to them by the 
first opportunity. This will be handed you by 
our good friend Mr. Barrell, who will give 
you a more particular account of our public 
affairs. J. TV. 



In Provincial Congress, Watertowx, 
May 16, 1775. 

" Resolved, That Dr. Benjamin Church be 
ordered to go immediately to Philadelphia, and 
deliver to the President of the Honorable 
American Congress, there now sitting, the fol- 
lowing application, to be by him communi- 
cated to the members thereof; and the said 
Church is also directed to confer with the said 



Congress respecting such other matters as may 
be necessary to the defence of this Colony, and 
particularly to the state of the army there- 

in : 

May it please your Honors, - — That system 
of colony administration which, in the most 
firm, dutiful, and. loyal manner, has been in 
vain remonstrated against by the representative 
body of the united Colonies, seems still, unless 
speedily and vigorously opposed by the col- 
lected wisdom and force of all America, to 
threaten ruin and destruction to this continent. 

For a long time past, this colony has, by a 
corrupt administration in Great Britain and 
here, been deprived of the exercise of those 
powers of government, without which a people 
can be neither rich, happy, nor secure. The 
whole continent saw the blow pending, which, 
if not warded off, must inevitably have sub- 
verted the freedom and happiness of each 
Colony. The principles of self-defence, roused 
in the breasts of freemen by the dread of im- 
pending slavery, caused to be collected the 
wisdom of America in a Congress composed of' 
men who, through time, must, in every land 
of freedom, be revered among the most faith- 
ful assertors of the essential rights of human 

This Colony was then reduced to great 
difficulties, being denied the exercise of civil 
government according to our charter, or the 
fundamental principles of the English consti- 
tution, and a formidable navy and army (not 
only inimical to our safety, but flattered with 
the prospect of enjoying the fruit of our indus- 
try) were stationed for that purpose in our 
metropolis. The prospect of deciding the 
question between our mother-country and us 
by the sword gave us the greatest pain and 

anxiety; but we have made all the prepara- 
tion for our necessary defence that our con- 
fused state would admit of; and, as the question 
equally affected our sister-colonies and us, we 
have declined, though urged thereto by the 
most pressing necessity, to assume the reins 
of civil government without their advice and 
consent ; but have hitherto borne the many 
difficulties and distressing embarrassments ne- 
cessarily resulting from a want thereof. 

We are now compelled to raise an army, 
which, with the assistance of the other Colo- 
nies, we hope, under the smiles of Heaven, 
will be able to defend us and all America from 
the further devastations of our enemies. But 
as the sword should, in all free states, be sub- 
servient to the civil powers ; and as it is the 
duty of the magistrates to support it for the 
people's necessary defence, we tremble at hav- 
ing an army (although consisting of our own 
countrymen) established here, without a civil 
power to provide for and control them. 

We are happy in having an opportunit) r of 
laying our distressed state before the represen- 
tative body of the continent, and humbly hope 
you will favor us with your most explicit 
advice respecting the taking up and exercising 
the powers of civil government, which we 
think absolutely necessary for the salvation of 
our country ; and we shall readily submit to 
such a general plan as you may direct for the 
Colonies, or make it our great study to estab- 
lish such a form of government here as shall 
not only most promote our own advantages, 
but the union and interest of all America. 

As the army now collecting from different 
Colonies is for the general defence of the rights 
of America, we would beg leave to suggest to 
your consideration the propriety of your taking 
the regulation and general direction of it, that 



the operations of it may more effectually answer 
the purposes designed. 

Jos. W u;ki:x, President pro tern. 

Attest : 

S\muel Freeman, Secretary pro tern. 

To the Honorable the Continental Congress, 


Jamaica Plains, May 20, 1775. 

Sir, — Shall be obliged to you would you 
stop any letters directed for me that may be 
brought by the post, and send them by the 
bearer, who will pay the postage. Should 
the committee approve of sending me Hutch- 
inson's loose letters, with the letter-books, on 
Monday, will apply myself in sorting them 
according to date, reading them over, and noti- 
fying every thing that shall appear to me of 
importance to be laid before the public. 

Your very humble servant, and brother in 
the same common cause, 

William Gordon. 


Watertown, May 25, 1775. 

Gentlemen, — Upon my arrival here just 
this minute, I had the pleasure of being in- 
formed that our worthy friend Colonel Arnold, 
not having had the sole honor of reducing 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point, determined 
upon an expedition against St. John's, in 

which he happily succeeded. The letters 
were directed to the Committee of Safety, 
but were supposed to be necessary to be laid 
before this Congress. 1 have not seen them 
yet, but you will have the particulars from 
the bearer. 

I have also received a letter from the Con- 
gress at New Hampshire, informing me of a 
resolve to raise forthwith two thousand men, 
and more if it should be necessary. The 
troops, at least one company of them, with a 
train of artillery from Providence, are in the 
upper end of Roxbury. To say the truth, 
I find my health much mended since this 


I am, gentlemen, 

Your most obedient servant, 

J. Warren. 

P. S. — You will be kind enough to com- 
municate the contents of this letter to General 
Room, as I love to give pleasure to good men. 


Watertown, May 28, 1775. 
Sir, — I cannot proceed on my journey to 
Hartford and Crown Point, through want of 
the papers sent last evening to Cambridge by 
Mr. Gill to be attested. Mr. Gill promised 
to bring me a horse and sulky to proceed on 
as far as Leicester, where I shall take a horse 
of my own, there being none that may be 
obtained here. If he has not provided me 
with a horse and sulky already, he knows 
where to do it, having your directions ; there- 



fore you will please to forward the papers, 
with a horse and sulky, by Mr. Gill, when I 
shall instantly proceed. 

I am your most obedient servant, 

Jos. Henshaw. 



New York, June 12, 1775. 

Dear Sir, — Your favor to our Congress on 
the subject of powder, filled us with great 
distress, which was greatly increased by our 
utter inability to supply you. We, however, 
wrote immediately to Jersey, where we pro- 
cured a small quantity, which, with all we 
could purchase here, amount to six hundred 
and fifty-five pounds. The Congress wrote by 
this day's post to Governor Trumbull, to sup- 
ply you with this quantity out of one of his. 
easterly magazines, and we would replace. 

For this purpose, two wagons set off with 
the above, or to be forwarded to you, in case 
he can't comply with our request. 

I am, sir, in the utmost haste, 

Your very humble servant, 

Alex. McDougal. 

To Joseph Warren, Esq. 

April 4, 1776. 

The Committee appointed to take under 
consideration the erecting a monument to the 
memory of the Honorable Major-General Jo- 
seph "Warren, beg leave to report, that they 
have attended to that service, and find that the 
place where his body was buried is discovered, 
and that the Lodge of Freemasons in this 
colony, whereof he was late Grand Master, 
are desirous of taking up the said deceased's 
remains, and, in the usual funeral solemni- 
ties of that society, to decently inter the same, 
and that his friends are consenting thereto. 
Wherefore your Committee are of opinion that 
the said Lodge have leave to put their said 
intentions into execution, in such a manner as 
that the government of this Colony may here- 
after have an opportunity to erect a monument 
to the memory of that worthy, valiant, and 
patriotic American. 

James Sullivan, per order. 

Read and accepted ; and the said Lodge has 
leave to put their intentions as aforesaid into 
execution accordingly. 




B. — Page 49. 

New York, Sept. 24, 1774. 
At a meeting of the Committee of Mecha- 
nics of this city, at the house of Mr. David 
Philips, a letter to them was received from 
the mechanics of the town of Boston ; which 
being read, it was resolved unanimously that 
the same be printed ; and is as follows : — 


Boston, Sept. 8, 1774. 

Gentlemen, — General Gage being deter- 
mined to cut off the communication of this 
town with the country, by fortifying the sole 
pass between them by land, has applied to 
several tradesmen in this town, and found 
none base enough to engage in so villainous 
an enterprise. And it is now said he intends 
to apply to New York for workmen to com- 
plete his desigiis. Our tradesmen, therefore, 
apprehending that your zeal for the common 
safety is not less to be depended upon than 
their own, requested us to give you the ear- 
liest intimation of the matter, that you might 
take your measures accordingly. 

We cannot entertain a doubt but the trades- 
men of New York will treat an application of 
this kind as it deserves. The subject is of the 
last importance ; and for any one part of 
America to show a readiness to comply with 

measures destructive of any other part, will 
inevitably destroy that confidence so necessary 
to the common salvation. 

We are, gentlemen, your friends and fellow- 

By order of the Committee, 

John Warren, Chairman. 

To the Committee of Mechanics 
of the City of New York. 

Upon which it was unanimously Resolved, 
That the thanks of this Committee be returned 
to those worthy mechanics of this city who 
have declined to aid or assist in the erecting 
of fortifications on Boston Neck, which, when, 
completed, would probably be improved to 
spill the blood of their fellow-subjects in the 
Massachusetts Bay ; cut off the communication 
with the country, whereby the soldiery might 
be enabled to inflict on that town all the dis- 
tresses of famine, and reduce those brave and 
loyal people to terms degrading to human 
nature, repugnant to Christianity, and which, 
perhaps, might prove destructive of British 
and American liberty. 

Resolved, likewise, That the thanks of this 
Committee be returned to those merchants of 
this place, for their truly worthy and patriotic 
conduct, who have virtuously refused to let 



their vessels to transport the army and the 
horrid engines of war, for the detestable 
purpose of destroying his Majesty's faithful 
subjects in the Massachusetts Bay, who are a 
people well known to have been constant in 
supporting, and firm in defending, the Pro- 
testant succession, as settled in the illustrious 
House of Hanover. 

Signed by order and in behalf of the Com- 
mittee of Mechanics. 

Abel Hardenbrook, Jun., Chairman. 


By the Council and House of Representatives of Massachusetts. 

April 15, 1776. 

Resolved, That the depositions of Dr. John 
Warren, Daniel Scott, and Frederick 
Ridgely, respecting a quantity of medicines 
left in the workhouse of the town of Boston, 
lately improved as an hospital by the British 
troops, be published in the Watertown news- 
paper, by order of the General Court. 


I, John Warren, of Cambridge, physician, 
testify and say, that, on or about the twenty- 
ninth day of March last past, I went into the 
workhouse of the town of Boston, lately im- 
proved as an hospital by the British troops 
stationed in said town ; and, upon examining 
into the state of a large quantity of medicine 
there by them left, — particularly in one room, 
supposed to have been by them used as a 
medicinal store-room, — I found a great variety 
of medicinal articles lying upon the floor, some 
of which were contained and secured in papers, 
whilst others were scattered upon the floor 

loose. Amongst these medicines, I observed 
small quantities of what I supposed was white 
and yellow arsenic intermixed ; and then re- 
ceived information from Dr. Daniel Scott that 
he had taken up a large quantity of said arsenic 
from over and amongst the medicine, and had 
collected it chiefly in large lumps, and secured 
it in a vessel. Upon receiving this informa- 
tion, I desired him to let me view the arsenic ; 
with which he complied, and I judged it to 
amount to about the quantity of twelve or 
fourteen pounds. Being much surprised by 
this extraordinary intelligence, I more minutely 
examined the medicines on the floor, and found 
them to be chiefly capital articles, and those 
most generally in great demand ; and, judging 
them to be rendered entirely unfit for use, I 
advised Dr. Scott to let them remain, and by 
no means meddle with them, as I thought the 
utmost hazard would attend the using of them. 
They were accordingly suffered to remain, and 
no account was taken of them. 

John Warren. 

Colony op Massachusetts Bat, Watertown, ss. 

Then John Warren made solemn oath to 

the truth of the above-written deposition. 

Before me, 

James Otis, 

Justice of the Peace through the said Colony. 
April 3, 1776. 


Corryell's Ferry, Delaware, 
Dec. 16, 1776. 

Sir, — I take the liberty to recommend Dr. 
Warren to the Congress as a very suitable 
person to receive an appointment of a Sub- 




director, which I am informed they are about 
to create a number of. Dr. Warren has given 
great satisfaction where he has had the direc- 
tion of business. He is a young gentleman 
of ability, humanity, and great application to 

I feel a degree of happiness that the Con- 
gress are going to put the hospital-department 
upon a better establishment ; for the sick, this 
campaign, have suffered beyond description, 
and shocking to humanity. For my own part, 

I have never felt any distress equal to what 
the sufferings of the sick have occasioned, and 
am confident that nothing will injure the 
recruiting service so much as the dissatisfac- 
tion arising upon that head. 

I am, dear sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Nathanael Greene. 

To the Hon. John Hancock, Esq., President of the 
Continental Congress, at Philadelphia. 




T he following relic of a Journal was found 
among the papers of Dr. John "Warren, some 
years after his death. It was in a mutilated 
state, and much of the writing so faded as to 
have become illegible. Believing it would 
afford an interesting view of the feelings and 
impressions of the time, and of the imperfect 
manner in which facts now very clearly estab- 
lished were then understood, it has been put 
in order and published. 

The author of this Journal was in the 
public service in the army during the whole 
time included, which must be considered as 
an explanation of the imperfection of its de- 
tails, as his time would of course be intensely 
occupied in the care of the sick and wounded. 
Among the interesting observations made on 
entering the town of Boston, immediately after 
the opening, were some which related to the 
condition of the medicines left by the British 
army. These became the subject of a public 
report ; a copy of which, contained in the 
American Archives, has been introduced. 

The Journal was interrupted by the depart- 
ure of the author to join the central army, with 
which he continued connected till the year 
1777, when, in consequence of camp-fever, 
he was compelled to return to Boston, where 
he exercised the office of military surgeon 
during the remainder of the war. 


19th April, 1775. — Previous to the unhappy 
conflict (if it should prove so, for it is pregnant 
with the greatest of events), quantities of mili- 
tary stores had, in consequence of the lowering 
aspect of public affairs, been collected in differ- 
ent parts of the country, particularly at Con- 
cord, that they might be ready for use, if the 
melancholy necessity should require it. On 
the evening of April 18th, a number of armed 
officers went over Charlestown Ferry, round 
towards Roxbury, and placed themselves in 
different parts of the road, in the night ; also 
on the way to Concord, to prevent any in- 
telligence getting to the country. For this 
purpose, they stopped all travellers with 
threatening language. The grenadiers and 
light-infantry companies, amounting to about 
three hundred, had for some time been off 
duty, under pretence of camping, — a new ex- 
ercise. The Bostonians, being at this alarmed, 
on the 18th sent expresses to the neighbor- 
hood, informing them of the direct orders then 
given by [effaced in the manuscript] for leav- 
ing the town. In the beginning of the evening 
of the 18th, before the moon rose, the said 
companies embarked from Boston, and landed 
at Cambridge, proceeding by the most private 

way for Lexington. While from 

. . left, and arrived at half an hour afterwards. 
In consequence of the alarm from the filing of 



guns, and troops disembarked, the minute-men 
of the town of Lexington, in number about 
a hundred and thirty, assembled upon the 
Common, near the meeting-house. Having 
waited some time after, and the evening being 

misty, and having now their 

ready to attend 

half an hour after the drums beat, and about 
.... immediately assembled, but with hurry, 
in a confused manner. The regulars came 
in ; and, upon finding the number great, the 
captain ordered his men to disperse for their 
safety. Several of the British officers came on 
the ground together, to the men. One cried 
out, " You rebels, lay down your arms ! " 
another, " Stop, you rebels ! " a third, " Dis- 
perse, you rebels ! " Some dispersed, but a 
few continued in a military position. On 
seeing which, Major Pitcairn (upon the plea, 
it seems, of some person's snapping a gun or 
pistol at the regulars, without its going off, 
whilst they were at some distance from a 
company) fired his pistol, at the same time 
giving the word of command, "Fire," which 
was instantly obeyed, and eight persons were 

The alarm was spread to Concord ; but they 
knew not what had been done at Lexington. 
They were drawn up at the north bridge of the 
town ; but, being informed that the regulars 
were three times their number, they retreated 
over it ; but, being reinforced, they returned 
to it again, in order to dislodge Capt. Lane, 
who, with his men, guarded the bridge. The 
commander having given express orders not 
to fire, except the regulars did first, — when 
they came boldly near the bridge, the regulars 
fired, and killed Capt. Parker and one private. 
Lieut. Gould was there wounded, and taken 
prisoner. Immediately upon this, the whole 

detachment, — after having disabled two twenty- 
four pounders, and destroyed their carriages, 
with seven wheels for the same, with their 
limbers ; sixteen wheels, four brass three- 
pounders, and two carriages with limbers and 
wheels for two four-pounders ; thrown five 
hundred pounds of ball into the rivers, wells, 
&c, and broke in pieces about sixty barrels 
of flour, about half of which was saved, — 
retreated with precipitation. When they had 
passed Lexington meeting-house, they were 
met by a brigade under Lord Percy, of about 
one thousand men, with two cannon. L'pon 
which they burnt in Lexington three houses, 
one barn, and two shops, with one mill-house. 
The inhabitants had, all the way on the road, 
left their houses. The regulars had broke the 
windows on the front of almost every house 
on their way, and some they entered to plun- 
der. One regular was plundering the con- 
tents of a drawer, when a ball from one of 
the provincials passed through his head, and 
knocked him directly into the drawer. The 

regulars arrived at Charlestown just at 

having lost about seven or eight 

hundred killed, and perhaps twice as many 
wounded and taken prisoners. Some of the 
dead they carried into Charlestown, and the 
chief of their wounded. They intrenched for 
the night upon Bunker Hill, after having 
danced to the tune of " Yankee Doodle," 
which was played by the brigade when they 
went up. 

20th April, 1775. — This day, before noon, 
upon the news of a vast number of people 
being arrived from all parts of the country 
to Cambridge, the regulars cross the ferry 
to Boston, and General Gage begins imme- 
diately to fortify more strongly. 



June 17th, 1775. — This day, — a day ever 
to be remembered by the United American 
Colonies, — at about four o'clock afternoon, I 
was alarmed with the incessant report of can- 
non, which appeared to be at or near Boston. 
Towards sunsetting, a very great fire was dis- 
covered, nearly in a direction from Salem for 
Boston. At the beginning of the evening, news 
arrived that a smart engagement had happened 
in the afternoon on Bunker Hill, in Charles- 
town, between the king's regular troops and 
the provincials. Soon after, we received intelli- 
gence that our troops were repulsed with great 
loss, and the enemy had taken possession of 
the ground which we had broke the night 
before. I was very anxious, as I was informed 
that great numbers had fallen on both sides, 
and that my brother was, in all probability, in 
the engagement. I, however, went home with 
a determination to take a few hours' sleep, and 
then to go immediately for Cambridge with 
my arms. Accordingly in the morning, about 
two o'clock, I prepared myself, and went off 
on horseback ; and, when I arrived at Med- 
ford, received the melancholy and distressing 
tidings, that my brother was missing. Upon 
this dreadful intelligence, I went immediately 
to Cambridge, and inquired of almost every 
person I saw whether they could give me any 
information of him. Some told me he was 
undoubtedly alive and well ; others, that he 
was wounded ; and others, that he fell on the 
field. Thus perplexed almost to distraction, I 
went on inquiring with a solicitude which was 
such a mixture of hope and fear, as none but 
one who has felt it can form any conceptions 
of. In this manner, I passed several days ; 
every day's information diminishing the proba- 
bility of his safety. 

It appears that about twenty-five hundred 

men were sent off from the ministerial quar- 
ters in Boston to dispossess a number — about 
seven hundred of our troops — who had, in 
the course of the night, cast up a small breast- 
work on the hill. They accordingly attacked 
them, and, after having retreated three times, 
carried their point. Upon which our men 
retreated with precipitation, having lost about 
two hundred dead, and about three hundred 
wounded ; the enemy, according to Gage's 
account, one thousand and twenty-five killed 
and wounded, amongst whom were a consider- 
able proportion of officers, — Lieut. Colonel 
Abercrombie, Major Pitcairn, &c. ; a dear 
purchase to them indeed ! 

On the 18th, there was an alarm, upon some 
motions of the enemy, but it proved false ; 
and several of the same kind in the course of 
the week. This week we begin intrenchments 
upon Winter Hill and Prospect Hill, which 
are at length well fortified. Also fort number 
one and two ; and at Roxbury, a fort upon the 
hill near the meeting-house. A constant fire 
is kept up by the enemy ; but they have no 
inclination to come out. 

November, 1775. 
Saturday, 4th November. — News arrived 
of the taking Chamblee by the French, after 
forty hours' engagement, with cannon. This 
fort is beyond St. John's ; and the officers at 
St. John's had sent their families here for secu- 
rity. An hundred and eighty prisoners are 
taken, thirty of which are regulars ; one hun- 
dred and twenty-four casks of powder, sixty 
shells, three barrels of flour, eleven do. of rice, 
seven of peas, nine firkins of butter, thirty-four 
barrels of pork, seven do. damaged, three hun- 
dred boxes swivel-shot, one hundred and fifty 



French arms, one box musket-shot, six thou- 
sand five hundred and sixty-four musket- 
tart ridges, three royal mortars, five hundred 
hand-grenades, eighty-three accoutrements ; be- 
sides a large quantity of sails, rigging, &c. &c. 
Officers prisoners : Major Plepford ; Captains 
Briggs and Goodwin ; Lieutenants Homer, 
Harrison, and Shettleworth ; Capt. Alger; 
and William McClough, Commissary. The 
siege was laid on 16th of October, and they 
surrendered prisoners-of-war on the 18th. 

Friday, 10th November. — A party of regu- 
lars, supposed about two hundred and twenty, 
came off from Charlestown in boats, and 
steered to Lechmere's Point at high water, 
when the Point was surrounded with water, so 
that our forces, in getting to them, waded up 
to their shoulders. We soon drove them off, 
with Col. Thompson and his rifle-battalion. 
We had one man badly wounded with grape- 
shot. The cannon fired very briskly whilst I 
was down there. They carried off with them 
eight or ten cattle, and one or two of the sen- 
tinels, with the guns and tent. It is supposed 
our muskets wounded numbers, — some of our 
men believed, badly. 

Tuesday, November 14. — This day intelli- 
gence arrived, that the fort at St. John's sur- 
rendered, on November 2d, to the American 
forces under General Montgomery and Schuy- 
ler, as prisoners of war. We are informed 
that there were two regiments. According to 
the articles of capitulation, signed by Major 
Preston, commander of the fort, the prisoners 
were to be allowed the honors of war in 
marching out ; and the whole garrison was to 
march to Connecticut government, and remain 
as prisoners till the disputes should be settled. 

The soldiers were to ground their arms, and 
leave them at the fort. The commissioned 
officers were allowed their side-arms ; and their 
fire-arms were to be taken, and put up in a 
box, and to be kept till the war ceased, when 
they were to be delivered to them again, if 
they should not consent to sell them or other- 
wise before. We are also informed, by a 
letter from Virginia, that soldiers from three 
tenders, and two other vessels, attempted to 
land and burn the town of Plumington ; but 
that, by the spirited behavior of the militia and 
others, they were repulsed twice with loss, 
though they had cut through the sunken 
vessels, and got into the harbor. They were 
obliged to flee with precipitation ; so that our 
people took one tender, with a number of pri- 
soners. They were preparing for a second 
attack, which was expected the next day, viz. 
27th October. 

November 22. — This day, at evening, a 
party of men, under command of Major- 
General Putnam, begin an intrenchment upon 
a hill, called Cobble Hill, north-east of Pros- 
pect Hill. 

23d. — This day, though our men left the 
works upon the hill in the morning, a body is 
sent on before noon to continue the works ; 
which they do without any molestation from 
the enemy, though directly in face of one of 
their ships lying very near, and Bunker Hill, 
together with Beacon Hill and several other 
forts. But, from the motions of the enemy 
to-day, I judge we shall have a brush with 
them before it is over. This day, by order of 
the General Assembly, is observed as a day 
of Thanksgiving through the Provinces. 



28th. — This day we have the news of 
General Montgomery marching into the city 
of Montreal, the fort having been evacuated a 
few days before. 

30th. — By a letter from Gen. Washington, 
our G. M., we learn, that Gen. Carleton, 
upon hearing of Gen. Montgomery's success, 
the night before his arrival, had evacuated the 
city; having spiked up all the cannon, taken 
the arms and ammunition, together with the 
garrison of about seven hundred Canadians, 
and embarked on board twelve or thirteen 
small vessels. He went down the river to 
Quebec, where Col. Arnold had arrived. By 
a publication by order of the Continental 
Congress, we learn that there were taken 
seventeen brass cannon, two of which were 
twenty-four pounders j twenty-two iron can- 
non ; twenty eight-inch howitzers ; thirty- 
five half-inch mortars ; four, four and two- 
thirds ditto. 

December 1st. — We have obtained intelli- 
gence that a brig, with a very valuable cargo 
of ordnance-stores, is taken, and brought in 
at Cape Ann, by Captain Manly, as a prize 
from the old English. It contains one noble 
brass thirteen-inch-and-a-half mortar ; weight, 
twenty-seven thousand quarters, sixteen pounds, 
— with two beds ; all supposed to have cost 
a thousand guineas. This success of our 
privateer is great, indeed, and will doubtless 
astonish our enemies : it is marvellous in our 
own eyes. The cargo in shot-cases, shells, &c, 
is said to amount to the value of thirty thou- 
sand pounds sterling. The number of arms 
with accoutrements taken, is two thousand. 
The mortar is named the " Congress," by 
Gen. Putnam. 

2d. — This day, the above Captain Manly 
brings in another prize, — a ship bound from 
Scotland to Boston, with three hundred and 
fifty chaldrons of sea-coal, and a quantity of 
bale-goods. She is about two hundred tons 
burthen, and almost new. The privateers 
from Salem and Beverly have, in the course 
of the week past, brought in a considerable 
number of small vessels ; as also those from 

Captain Broughton with another privateer, 
who were stationed at the mouth of the River 
St. Lawrence, with orders to wait for the firs 
which go down at this season of the year for 
England, return, having infamously covered 
the ignominy of their return with the pretence 
of seizing some gentlemen belonging to the 
Island of St. John, near Cape Breton, who, he 
said, were enlisting men against the colonies ; 
in which, however, it seems there was very 
little truth. He also seized a number of small 
vessels belonging to Americans, with fish ; and 
particularly one of Mr. Derby's, of Salem. 
It is said none of them will be condemned. 
The masters are very much blamed for their 
conduct, as they have thereby given opportu- 
nity to the immense rich cargos of firs, as also 
the powder which Carleton had treasured up 
in Quebec to escape us. This day the inso- 
lence of the ministerial army shines forth, in 
an invitation to our General and Dr. Cooper, 
by a card, to attend a tragedy to be acted next 
Saturday night in Boston. Last Sunday, sen- 
night, a large ministerial ship being near the 
Light, off Cape Ann, was struck with Light- 
ning, and was burnt. A sloop near her was 
struck at the same time, and was so damaged 
that she was obliged to put into the Gunnt, 
where she was taken by our people, and was 
found to be loaded with wood and hay. The 



light-horse of Burgoyne must suffer by these 
captures. Burgoyne — it is said confidently, 
and it is doubtless true — has sailed for home, 
having been sent for by his majesty. 

13. — By persons who have stolen out of 
Boston, we receive a confirmation of a report, 
that Capt. Martindale, of a privateer, with 
his whole crew, is taken. The number 
amounts to seventy : they were taken by stra- 
tagem by a man-of-war, which kept her ports 
shut up. By tins means they decoyed the 
privateer, so that it came up to her. Where- 
upon the man-of-war opened her ports, and 
threatened immediately to sink her, if she did 
not surrender ; in consequence of which, she 
surrendered accordingly. She was taken by 
the "Poway," carrying twenty guns. 

Two French gentlemen being in town, have 
occasioned great speculation. They have had 
several interviews with the generals. The 
report is, that they have arrived with two 
vessels, with a quantity of powder, — some 
say twenty tons, some thirty, and some fifty; 
generally the latter. They, however, keep all 
as a profound secret ; nothing concerning the 
matter transpires. On the night of the thir- 
teenth, the parole was " St. Domingo ; " coun- 
tersign, "France." It is said they are gone 
to the Continental Congress. Time only must 
elucidate the mystery. 

14. — This day we have news that Carle- 
ton's party, consisting of near two hundred, 
are all taken by a detachment under Colonel 
Warren ; that it was effected by a fort at the 
mouth of the River Sorrel, together with one 
or two floating batteries ; that all their vessels 
are taken, and Carleton himself, with three 
or four others, made their escape, just before 
the engagement, into the woods, where he 

was pursued by Colonel Arnold, and taken 
prisoner ; that no great amount of powder is 
yet taken, but that other articles amount to 

16. — We have the news, though not di- 
rectly, that Quebec has surrendered to Colonel 
Arnold. We shall soon know further. 

17. — This day we learn that Capt. Manly 
has taken another prize ; a vessel bound to 
Boston, with grain and other articles from 
Virginia. This day, the " Scarborough," man- 
of-war, which has laid for some time opposite 
Lechmere's Point, falls down by daybreak to 
Charlestown Ferry, in consequence of a few 
shot received by her yesterday from Cobble 
Hill, one of which undoubtedly went through 
her. The firing yesterday commenced on the 
side of the ministerial army from the ship, on 
account of our having broke ground upon 
Lechmere's Point ; to which place we have 
built a covert way. They wounded two men 
with swivel-shot ; neither, as we believe, mor- 
tally. They continued firing the chief part of 
the day, and have been throwing shells the 
chief of the night, but have done no mischief 
as yet worth mentioning. 

18th. — Our men keep at work, whilst they 
pelt us. 

19th. — They threw about twenty shells 
from their battery, opposite the Point, on all 
the preceding night. 

28th. — This night an expedition to Bunker 
Hill was projected by General Sullivan, who 
had drawn out one hundred and seventy volun- 
teers from each regiment in his brigade. They 



marched near the neck ; whilst another party, 
from Cobble Hill, attempted going over upon 
the ice ; but, several of our men unhappily 
having fired their guns, and the ice, as is said, 
not being sufficient to bear them, the expedi- 
tion failed. 

N. B. — Even after the setting of the moon, 
it was much too light, and the evening remark- 
ably calm. The attempt was made at about 
three o'clock in the morning. 

January, 1776. 
How different is the state of affairs this new 
year from that of the last ! A whole empire 
involved in the calamities of a civil war ; Great 
Britain, with her fleets and army, obstinately 
determined to reduce the colonies to absolute 
subjection ; and the colonies resolutely de- 
termined, almost to a man, to oppose with 
arms their tyrannical depredations. Blood and 
slaughter are stalking over the once peaceable 
shores of America. Affairs remain at this 
moment very peaceable. According to the 
intelligence from Boston, their number in the 
town cannot be more than six thousand, and 
about six hundred at Bunker Hill. 

8th. — At about nine o'clock this evening, 
a party of men, under command of Major 
Knowlton, with the utmost secrecy, crossed 
the Milldam from Cobble Hill ; and one-half 
of them being placed on the east side of the 
road, under Bunker Hill, to intercept any 
persons who might be going from the houses, 
the other party proceeded down the street, and 
set fire to a number of houses ; took five men 
prisoners, and one woman, and killed one man. 
They then retreated to the other party, with 
whom they joined ; and were at about the 

same time discovered by the enemy, who, in 
the utmost confusion, began a loose, scattering 
fire from their lines to all quarters, especially 
towards the Neck, where they supposed our 
troops must have come over. Several cannon 
and several hundred small-arms were fired by 
them, but without wounding a single man. 
Our men fired not a single shot whilst in 
the town ; for which, and their secrecy and 
bravery, they, in general orders of the next 
day, were thanked by the general. The night 
was dark, but not at all windy, — very calm 
and serene ; so that scarcely any more houses 
than those our men set fire to were consumed. 
About eight or ten were reduced to ashes, and 
about five or six were left standing ; so that 
they are deprived, in some measure, of quar- 
ters and fuel. 

By a vessel arrived from England at the 
eastward, we learn that the administration are 
determined to proceed, but that taking foreign 
troops into pay occasioned considerable uneasi- 
ness. The House of Commons re-echoed the 
King's speech, and the Irish parliament have 
declared against us ; but the Dukes of Grafton 
and Richmond have espoused our cause. 

18. — This day arrived the western post, 
with the melancholy and unexpected news of 
the defeat of the army at Canada, on the 
thirty-first of December, under General Mont- 
gomery. That day being the last of the 
enlistment, he was determined to make an 
attack on the city of Quebec, and had laid his 
plans for attacking the upper town ; but, seve- 
ral soldiers having deserted to the enemy, he 
determined to alter it. Accordingly, having 
waited to no purpose for a snow-storm to favor 
his design, he, in the morning, at about four 
o'clock, ordered a feint to be made by two 




parties upon different parts of the fort of the 
rapper town : under Colonel Livingston, of 
the Canadians, against St. John's Gate ; and 
Captain B&OWNE against Cape Diamond. The 
general at the head of the New York troops 
advanced to attack the lower town, at Anne de 
Mere, and forced one barrier ; but, just as he 
was opening to pass the other, by the fire of 
the enemy, he, together with his Aid-de-camp, 
Captain McPherson, Captain Chapman of the 
riflemen, and two or three more, were shot 
dead upon the spot. This so dispirited the 
men, that Colonel Campbell, on whom the 
command devolved, was obliged to draw off 
his men. In the meantime, Colonel Arnold, 
with his troops, who marched with unparal- 
leled bravery from Cambridge (during which 
march they were many of them obliged to eat 
even the leather of their shoes, and other arti- 
cles, as well as the whole of all the dogs they 
could find, intestines not excepted), advanced 
towards a two-gun battery of the enemy, 
which, after an hour's engagement, and . the 
loss of a number of men, he took possession 
of. Having received a wound in his leg, 
Col. Arnold was carried off to the hospital ; 
after which, the detachment pushed on for 
another barrier, and took possession of it. By 
this time, the detachments which were ap- 
pointed to make the feint upon the upper town 
had retreated ; and, the troops there having 
nothing to divert their attention from the lower 
town, a party sallied out at Palace Gate, and 
attacked this detachment in the rear. After a 
confident resistance, the whole corps of about 
three hundred then surrendered prisoners. 

January, 1776, continued. 

It is supposed that the number of our killed 
and wounded amounts to about sixty. Captain 

Kendrick and Lieutenant Humphreys, of the 
Riflemen, and Lieutenant Cooper, are slain. 
Our men then returned to about three miles 
from the city, where they posted themselves, 
waiting for reinforcements. 

The brave General Montgomery was de- 
cently interred, with the honors of war, on .the 
second of January, with Captain McPherson. 
The prisoners are treated kindly ; and one of 
the officers was suffered to come out, upon his 
parole, to collect the baggage for them. The 
brave Montgomery was determined either to 
take the city, or lose his life. Accordingly, 
he died nobly in the field. His course of 
victory was short, rapid, and uninterrupted, 
but truly great and glorious. He has, in his 
conquest, behaved like the hero and like the 
patriot. America ! thy land is watering 
with the richest blood of thy sons. God grant 
that in this man's stead, and for that of every 
hero who perishes in the noble struggle, 
double the number may rise up ! Peace to 
his beloved shade ! The tears of a grateful 
country shall flow copiously, while they lament 
his death. Ten thousand ministers of glory 
shall keep vigils around the sleeping dust of 
the invincible warrior ; whilst the precious 
remains shall be the resort of every' true 
patriot, in every future age. And, whilst the 
truly good and great shall approach the place 
sacred with the dust of the hero, they shall 
point to the little hillock, and say, "There 
rests Montgomery, who bravely conquered 
the enemies to freedom in this province ; who, 
with the utmost rapidity, reduced no less than 
three strong fortresses, and bravely died in 
the noble attempt to take possession of the 
strongest garrison upon the whole continent of 
America. He died, it is true ; but, in dying, 
his name became immortal." — Colonel Knox 



arrives with about fifty pieces of ordnance from 
Ticonderoga, the fortress there. Several prizes 
were taken by Manly the last of this month ; 
but at length he was pursued by a vessel of 
force, and obliged to run aground ; after which, 
he took out the guns, and saved the vessels. 

February, 1776. 
14. — This morning, at about four o'clock, 
the regular troops land at Dorchester, and 
burn down about six or seven houses, and take 
one man and three children prisoners. This 
is supposed to be in consequence of informa- 
tion by a deserter from us, who, whilst the 
generals the day before yesterday were upon 
Dorchester Point, ran over the ice to the 
regular sentry. — About this time, Gen. Lee 
arrives at New York, at about two o'clock. 
p.m. ; Gen. Clinton having arrived there at 
about twelve o'clock, a.m., of the same day. 
The former sent the mayor of the city on 
board, to demand of Clinton that he should 
give his word not to molest the town in any 
form, which he accordingly did. It is said 
that Gen. Clinton had just made a demand 
upon the city when Lee arrived, and wrote 
this very laconic answer to him ; viz., " I am 
here, Charles Lee." Clinton gave him to 
understand that he was going farther to the 
southward. Captain Manly, for his heroic 
conduct on the sea, is rewarded with a com- 
modore's commission, and is fitting out to 
engage Dawson, a king's cruiser, upon the 
coast. Brigadier-General Prescott, a prisoner 
from the westward, is ordered to be confined 
to jail, by the Continental Congress, for his 
having put Colonel Allen (taken by him) in 
chains, and having sent him home. Numbers 
of vessels are taken by privateers in divers of 
the seas. The great number of French troops 

sent to the islands, Martinique and Gauda- 
loupe, have become a matter of great specula- 
tion ; but it is generally believed that they 
will, in the spring, make a diversion in our 

17. — A few nights after the regulars burnt 
the houses at Dorchester, as mentioned above, 
a party of our men, consisting of about half-a- 
dozen men, by way of retaliation surrounded 
and brought off three of the enemy's senti- 
nels. The determination of parliament to send 
out Commissioners for the purpose of adjusting 
affairs between Britain and the Colonies is 
much talked of; but many people are apt to 
suspect, &c. 

March, 1776. 
2. — General Lee is appointed by Congress 
to take the command at the westward, in place 
of General Schuyler, who is to command at 
New Yoik. The former is gone to Albany ; 
from whence he is to proceed to Canada. Great 
numbers of troops are on the march for Que- 
bec, and it is believed that place will be soon 
reduced ; notwithstanding the great advantage 
they had over our men after the battle, — the 
suffering seven hundred men ; which was all 
we had to continue the siege of fifteen hun- 
dred, which was their number ; and, though a 
party sallied out of the city, yet, being attacked 
by a detachment of our men, they were driven 
back, leaving twelve dead on the spot, and 
fifteen taken, without a single man killed or 
wounded on our side. From New York, we 
learn that Clinton has sailed from there ; and 
that the "Asia" and " Phenix " — forty-two 
and sixty guns, men-of-war — still continue in 
the harbor. It is believed that Clinton will 
fall in with Admiral Hopkins, who commands 



the fleet which sailed from Philadelphia about 
twelve days past. Clinton has no great force 
with him. 

This evening we begin, from Roxbury and 
Lechmerc Point, and Cobble Hill at Charles- 
town, a cannonade and bombardment upon the 
town of Boston. At about half after eleven, 
at noon, three shells are thrown from Lech- 
mere's Point, all of which fall into the town. 
Two are thrown from Roxbury, which fall 
upon the Neck. About twenty cannon are 
fired from those places and Cobble Hill, which 
are returned by an equal number of shells and 
shot from the enemy. One thirteen-inch mor- 
tar burst at Roxbury, and two at Lechmere's 
Point, — one of which is what is called the 
" Old Sow." No damage done to us, though 
they have thrown one shell into the citadel 
upon Prospect Hill, where were near two 
hundred men. It there burst, but happily did 
no harm. 

3. — This night we cannonade again ; and 
one shell is thrown from Roxbury, and three 
from Cobble Hill, the last of which split the 
brass " Congress," which is much lamented. 
One mortar more is split at Roxbury. 

4. — This night the cannon and bombard- 
ment to us, from Boston, is pretty brisk all 
night. One ten-inch mortar is broke at Lech- 
mere's Point. This is very surprising. It is 
said the enemy have burst four. During the 
direction of the enemy to these parts, our men 
have taken post upon two high hills at Dor- 
chester, which command the town and neck 
of Boston, and, with materials before prepared, 
erect two strong forts. 

5. — This morning, our men are all under 

arms, to continue so the whole day. A great 
number of the militia have come as volunteers, 
with three days' provisions ; and an engage- 
ment is expected. Great preparations have, 
for a long time, been making for this day, as 
it was generally believed the enemy would 
attack the w r orks. Upon this supposition, 
about four thousand men were ready under 
arms the whole day, to embark and attack the 
town of Boston ; but they discovered no incli- 
nation to come out, and the day ended without 
any action. Our men are anxiously wishing 
for a battle. A very few cannon were fired 
by the enemy, this day, upon the new works ; 
and the day, as well as night, were very peace- 
able and quiet. One man was killed yesterday 
in Roxbury- street by a cannon-shot, which 
took off his leg. An Indian was also killed by 
the bursting of a shell, which fell in Lechmere 
Point, and tore out his intestines. In the 
night was as violent a storm as was ever 
known : it drove some of their transports on 
shore. One schooner was drove up near Dor- 
chester Hill, and a field-piece was carried 
down to fire at it ; by which one of our men, 
through carelessness, was badly wounded. 
These are the only instances of any injury 
done by the firing of the enemy, and all is 
now perfectly quiet. 

9. — This evening a brisk cannonade is 
begun from the enemy's lines upon Boston 
Neck. It commenced in consequence of a 
number of our men making up a large fire 
within shot of the enemy ; by which means 
a number of men were discovered round it ; 
and, this serving to direct their shot, the very 
first ball killed instantly one Dr. Dole and 
three privates. The former had his head 
completely severed from his body. About 



nine hundred shots were fired by the enemy ; 
and they were answered by a considerable 
number from our lines at Dorchester, Box- 
bury, and Charlestown. For several preceding 
evenings, a number of cannon were discharged 
upon both sides ; but nothing of importance 
was effected. 

We understand that, notwithstanding the 
military operations of the day, Mr. Peter 
Thacher, A.M., delivered a very elegant 
and spirited oration, to commemorate the 
bloody tragedy of the fifth of March, 1770, 
at the meeting-house at Watertown ; and that 
it was voted to be printed. 

By persons from Boston, we learn that the 
enemy are making great preparations to eva- 
cuate that town ; destroying their carriages 
and provision of all kinds, and embarking 
with all their ordnance and military stores, as 
well as other effects belonging to the tories ; 
together with those which the soldiers, not- 
withstanding the exertions of their general to 
prevent it, had plundered from the houses 
which were vacated. In consequence of this 
intelligence, together with other contained in 
the packet for General Howe, taken by our 
privateer, our army is ordered to prepare for 
marching ; and accordingly 

15. — The rifle-battalion, under Col. Thomp- 
son, march from Cambridge, as it is said, for 
New York. 

17th. — This morning, all the soldiers be- 
longing to Bunker Hill were seen to be march- 
ing towards the ferry: soon after which, two 
men went upon the hill, and, finding the forts 
entirely deserted by the enemy, gave a signal. 
Upon this, a body of our forces went on, and 
took possession of Charlestown. At the same 

time, two or three thousand men were paraded 
at the boats in Cambridge, for the purpose of 
going to Boston, if there should appear any 
possibility of opposition from the regulars. 
The boats carried the men to Sewall's Point, 
where they landed. Upon intelligence re- 
ceived from the selectmen, who had come out 
from Boston, that all the troops had left, only 
a small body of men, who had had the small- 
pox, were selected from several regiments, to 
take possession of the heights in town. Being 
one of the party, by permit from the general, I 
had an opportunity of seeing every thing, just 
as it was left about two hours before by the 
enemy. Two redoubts, in the neighborhood 

of Mt. , appeared to me to be strong. 

There were two or three half-moons at the 
hill, at the bottom of the common, for small 
arms ; and there were no embrasures at the 
redoubts above mentioned. Just by the shore, 
opposite Lechmere Point, is a bomb-battery, 
lined with plank, and faced with a parapet of 
horse-dung, being nothing but a simple line. 
Near it lies a thirteen-inch mortar, a little 
moved from its bed. This is an exceedingly 
fine piece, being, as I am sure, seven and a 
half inches thick at the muzzle, and near twice 
that over the chamber, with an iron bed, all 
cast as one piece. The touch-hole was spiked. 
Just above it, upon the ascent of the hill, was 
a three-gun battery of thirty-two pounders. 
The cannon are left spiked up, and shot driven 
into the bores. There was only a simple line, 
being plank filled with dirt. Upon Beacon 
Hill were scarcely more than the fortifications 
of nature, — a very insignificant, shallow ditch, 
with a few short pickets, a platform, and one 
twenty-four pounder, which could not be 
brought to bear upon any part of the hill. 
This was left spiked up, and the bore crammed. 



On Copp's Hill, at the north, was nothing 
more than a few barrels filled with dirt, to 
form parapets, and three twenty pounders 
upon platforms, left spiked and crammed. All 
these, as well as the others, were on carriages. 
The parapet on this fort, and on Beacon Hill, 
did not at all cover the men who should work 
the cannon. There was a small redoubt be- 
hind for small arms, — very slender, indeed. 
At Fort Hill was only five lines of barrels, 
filled with earth ; very trifling, indeed. Upon 
the neck, the works were strong : consisting 
of redoubts ; numbers of lines, with embra- 
sures for cannon, a few of which were left as 
the others ; a very strong work at the old 
fortification, and another near the Haymarket. 
All these were ditched and picketed. At 
Hatch's Wharf was a battery of rafters, with 
dirt, and two twelve pounders, left as the 
others. One of these I saw drilled out, and 
cleaned for use, without damage. 

A great number of other cannon were left 
at the north and south batteries, with one or 
both trunnions beat off; shot and shells in 
divers parts of the town ; some cartridges ; 
great quantities of wheat, hay, oil, horses, and 
other articles, to the amount of a great sum. 
The houses, I found to be considerably abused 
inside, where they had been inhabited by the 
common soldiery ; but the external parts of 
the houses made a tolerable appearance. The 
streets were clean ; and, upon the whole, 
the town looks much better than I expected. 
Several hundreds of houses were pulled down ; 
but these were very old ones. The inhabitants, 
in general, appeared to rejoice at our success ; 
but a considerable number of tories have tar- 
ried in the town to throw themselves upon the 
mercy of the people. The others are abroad 
with the shipping, all of which now lies before 

the castle. They appear to have gone off in a 
hurry, in consequence of our having, the night 
before, erected a fort upon Nook Hill, which 
was very near the town. Some cannon were 
fired from their lines, even this morning, to 
the Point. 

We now learn certainly that there was an 
intention, in consequence of a court martial 
held upon the occasion of our taking posses- 
sion of Dorchester Hills, to make an attack ; 
and three thousand men, under the command 
of Lord Percy, went to the Castle for the 
purpose. It was the intention to have attacked 
us, at the same time, at Roxbury lines. It 
appears that General Howe had been very 
careful to prevent his men from committing 
depredation, and that he, with the other offi- 
cers, had a high opinion of General Washing- 
ton ; of the army in general, much higher 
than formerly. Lord PeUcy said he never 
knew us do a foolish action yet ; and, there- 
fore, he believed we would not induce them 
to burn the town, by firing upon the fleet. 
They say they shall come back again soon. 
The small-pox is in about a dozen places in 

20. — This evening, they burn the Castle, 
and demolish it by blowing up all the forti- 
fications there. They leave not a building 

21. — Our men go upon the Castle, and 
begin to erect new fortresses, as they had 
begun a day or two before on Fort Hill. The 
fleet all fall down into Nantasket Road. The 
winds have been fair for them to sail ; but 
their not embracing the opportunity favors a 
suspicion of some intended attack. It seems, 
indeed, very improbable, that they will be 



willing to leave us in so disgraceful a manner 
as this. It is very surprising that they should 
not burn the town, when they had it so en- 
tirely in their power to do it. The soldiers, 
it appears, were much dissatisfied at being 
obliged to reave the town, without glutting 
their revengeful tempers with the blood of 
the Yankees. This day I visit Charlestown, 
and a most melancholy heap of ruins it is. 
Scarcely the vestiges of those beautiful build- 
ings remain to distinguish them from the 
mean cottages. The hill which was the thea- 
tre upon which the bloody tragedy of the 17th 
of June was acted, commands the most affect- 
ing view I ever saw in my life. The walls 
of magnificent buildings tottering to the earth 
below ; above, a great number of rude hil- 
locks, under which are deposited the remains, 
in clusters, of those deathless heroes who fell 
in the field of battle. The scene was inex- 
pressibly solemn, when I considered myself as 
walking over the bones of many of my worthy 
fellow-countrymen, who jeoparded and sacri- 
ficed their lives in these high-places. When I 
considered, that perhaps, whilst I was musing 
on the objects around me, I might be standing 
over the remains of a dear brother, whose 
blood had stained these hallowed walks, with 
what veneration did this inspire me ! how 
many endearing scenes of fraternal friendship, 
now past and gone for ever, presented them- 
selves to my view ! But it is enough. Oh 
may our arms be strengthened to fight the 
battles of our God ! 

When I» came to Bunker Hill, I found it 
exceeding strong ; the front parapet about 
thirteen feet high from the bottom of the 
trench, — composed of earth contained in 
plank, supported by huge timber, with two 
look-outs upon the top. In the front of this 

were two bastions ; and a semicircular line, 
with very wide trenches, and very long pick- 
ets, as well as a trench within the causeway, 

was secured with a and brush. All 

that part of the main fort which was not in- 
cluded with high works, as above mentioned, 
— viz. the rear, — was secured by another 
parapet, with a trench picketed inside as well 
as out. There was a half-moon, which com- 
manded the river at the side. There was, 
moreover, a blockhouse upon Schoolhouse 
Hill, enclosed by a very strong fence, pick- 
eted ; and a dungeon and blockhouse upon 
Breed's Hill, enclosed in a redoubt of earth, 
with trenches and pickets. The works which 
had been cast up hj our men were entirely 

24. — A fort is ordered to be erected upon 
Charlestown Point immediately, and the works 
of the enemy upon Boston Neck to be imme- 
diately levelled. The army is also ordered 
to be in readiness for the enemy ; as the tarry- 
ing in Nantasket Roads, after so fair oppor- 
tunities of sailing, gives us reason to suspect 

26. — About this time, the chief part of the 
enemy's fleet put* off under sail, it is generally 
supposed immediately for Halifax. The erect- 
ing of a fort upon Fort Hill goes on slowly ; 
but it will be very strong. 

April 12. — This day is confirmed the news 
announcing the engagement of Admiral Hop- 

kin§ with He took three vessels of 

the latter, having lost, killed, and wounded 
ten men : himself and son wounded, but not 
mortally. He also much damaged the "Glas- 
gow," man-of-war, and obliged her to flee. 



We learn that the prizes are carried into New 
London. Three vessels, taken hy WALLACE, 
are retaken by our people at Rhode Island. 
This Meek arrived at Boston the notorious 
tory, Brush, with William Jackson, taken 
in a vessel of the enemy's by Manly, with 
eight or ten soldiers. There was a most valu- 
able cargo of English goods, supposed to the 
amount of thirty thousand pounds sterling. 
The fortifying of the town has been a very 
long time neglected. As rumors exist of a 
fleet having been seen off the Banks of New- 
foundland, it now stimulates the people, and 
numbers of volunteers go down to Camp Hill 
to construct a fort. Soon after this date, April 
23d, I set off with company for Portsmouth ; 

travel through Salem, Ipswich, Newbury, and 
Hampton, — a most delightful country, and 
fine, especially as we returned from Newbury 
to Ipswich : from whence we went to Salem, 
and thence returned, about ten days after we 
set out. A vessel has arrived, during our 
excursion, from Bordeaux, in France, in Ken- 
nebec River, belonging to Messrs. Tracys and 
Jackson. Nothing of importance happens, as 
we learn. We anxiously expect news from 

May 11th. — At about eleven o'clock, set 
out from Cambridge, upon a journey to New 
York, with Dr. McKnight, Blanchard, and 
James Clark. Dine at Child's Tavern, a 
little beyond Jamaica Plain ; lodge at ... . 

An interesting relic of General Warren ex- 
ists in the hands of his family. In the year 
1776, one year after the battle of Bunker 
Hill, the historian, Dr. Gordon, of Roxbury, 
received a curious, ancient, small book of 
Psalms from an English clergyman. The edi- 
tion (one of the earliest translations of any part 
of the Bible) was executed during the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, and printed at Geneva. 
The typography is very fine. The binding is 
in a beautiful and peculiar style, being com- 
posed of goat-skin, studded over with gilt 
fleurs-de-lis, and is in every part still perfect. 
The book is about three by four inches. It 
contains two inscriptions ; one on the first 
blank -leaf as follows : — " North America. 
Taken at the Battle of Bunkers Hill, June 
17th, 1775, out of Dr. Warren's pocket." ■ 
Another inscription, on the back of the title- 
page, informs us that it was purchased of a 
private, engaged in the battle of Bunker Hill, 

by an English clergyman, Dr. Samuel Wil- 
ton, who gave ten times its value, lest, as he 
says, "it should be exhibited in triumph, as 
the spoil of a Presbyterian rebel." Dr. Wil- 
ton sent it to Dr. Gordon, with the request, 
that it should be delivered to surviving rela- 
tives, if any there were. Dr. Wilton died 
within three months after. Dr. Gordon faith- 
fully executed the commission, consigning the 
book to Dr. John Warren, from whom it 
passed into the hands of the present possessor, 
Dr. John Collins Warren. 

Another relic, of a different character, may 
be viewed as his last legacy to his country. 
The night previous to the battle of Bunker 
Hill, he was advised by a friend not to enter 
into the impending conflict, as, from his known 
ardor, he would certainly expose his life, and 
fall a victim to his zeal. To this he only 
replied in the following language : " Dulce 
et decorum est pro patria mori." 



The College of Heralds was incorporated in 1483 ; and in 1528 a practice was introduced 
of issuing commissions, under the Privy Seal, to the Kings of Arms at that College, directing 
them to visit the different counties of England, and register the pedigrees and arms of the nobility 
and gentry residing in them. These registers are called " Visitation Books ; " and the entries in 
them are usually signed by the heads of the respective families, and attested by a Herald. 
These Visitations ceased about the year 1686. 

An account of these Visitations, so far as they relate to our purpose, has been obtained and 
preserved. This account presents vouchers for many of the facts stated in the text. They 
are not, however, arranged in the order of time, but in the order in which they were obtained ; 
and it must be noted, that, however desirable it might be to preserve this order, the natural and 
necessary deficiencies produced in the lapse of eight hundred years would make it difficult, if not 
impossible, to attain so desirable an object. 





John "Warren, of Headboro', 
in Ashburton, in Devonshire, 

Christopher Warren, of Headboro', 



William Warren, of Headboro', =f= Anne, daughter of John Mable, of Calstocke, in Cornwall. 


Christopher Warren, of Headboro', =p= Alice, dau. of Thomas Webb, of Sidnam, Devonshire. 


1. Robert Warren, 
Parson of Rame, 
in Cornwall, 

2. John Warren. 

3. Thomas Warren, 
ob. sine prole. 

Margaret, daut. 
of Peter Bl t rges, 
of Petertavy, in 

4. Richard Warren, 
of Greenwich, in 
Kent, merchant. 

Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of ... . Juatt, 
and relict of ... . 

5. Christopher Warren, 
of London, 

Sarah, dau. of Nicho- 
las Opie, of Plymouth, 

6. William Warren, 
of London, merch., 

Mary, dau. of Wm. 
Culling, of Wood- 
land, in Devonshire. 


John Richards. 




Thomas Warren 
of Walterstaff, 




Richard Warren, 
of Walterstaff. 

Margaret, daughter of Ambrose Searle, 
of Godfred, (Codford ?) in Devonshire. 


Peter Warren, 
of Walterstaff. 

Thomas Warren, 
of London, merch. 
tailor, living in 
1634. Third son. 

Anne, daughter of 
Jo. Leach, Canon 
and Chancellor of 
Exeter, in Devon- 


Thomas Warren, 

eldest son. 






William Warren, alias Waller, 
of Bushing, in Cambridgeshire. 

Henry Warren, alias Waller, 
of Ashwell, in Co. Hertford. A 
Captain of the Artillery Garden, 
and one of the Captains of the 
city of London. Ob. Oct. 27, 


Mary, dau. of George Sin gd ale. 



Edward Warren, 
alias Waller. 


Abms of William Warren, alias Waller, of Basingbourne, 
in Cambridge, Gent., descended from the house of 
Warren, in Pointen in Cheshire. Justified by my 


Robert Cook, King of Arms. 




John Warren, fifth son =j== Margaret, daughter of 
of Sir John Warren, Sir William Boothe, 
of Poynton, in Cheshire. Knight. 

William Warren, =j= Emma, dau. of Thomas Snigge, 
of Hertfordshire, of Lechworth, in Hertfordshire. 

Gregory Warren, 
of St. Albans, in 

Alice, daught. of Wm. Poulter, 
relict of George Skipworth. 

Thomas Warren, 
first son. 

Thomas Warren, ob. s. p. 

dau. of Mynne, 
of Norfolk. 

Bridget Warren, 

Field, of 

Ascott, in Buck- 


Gregory Warren, 
second son of St. 

Joan, daughter of 
Jeremy Thornton, 
of Greenford. 

Jane Warren, 

1. Thomas Vaughan, of 

St. Albans. 

2. Walter Morgan, of 
Layton, in Essex. 

Gregory Warren, ob. s. p. 

Joan, daughter of = John Warren, = Ann, daughter of 
Allen Nichols, of London, only William Rolfe, 
of Chipping Bar- son living. of Totteridge, in 

nett, in Hertford- Hertfordshire, 

shire, first wife. 




"William Warren, of Dover, =? 



John Warren, of Dover, =f= Jane, dau. of Edward Waldershare, Esq. 


John Warren, 
of Dover. 

Edward Warren, 
ob. sine prole. 

Thomas Warren, = 
of Dover. 

p= Christian, 
daughter of 
. . . Close, 
of Calais. 


Henry Broker. 

John Warren, =f= Anne, dau. of William Craford, 

of Mengham, Knight. 

Anne. Alice. Affra. 

William Warren, 
of Ripple. 

daughter of 
Thos. Gookin, 
of Ripple. 

2d son. 


of Dover. 




Lawrence Warren, 
of ... in Lancashire, 
descended from the 
Warrens of Pointon, 
in Cheshire. 

Robert Warren, alias Waringe, === Anne, daught. of . . . Browne 

Richard Waryn, alias Waryng, =p= Margaret, dau. of . 
of London, 1634. 

Margaret Warren. 





Thomas Warren, 
of Snowshill, in 

Christian, dau. 
of . . . Barnes. 


Richard Warren, 
of Snowshill. 


Jane, dau. of 
. . . Parsons, 
of Overkay. 






Thomas Warren, 
of Staunton, in 

Milliscent, daughter 
of . . . Pettifere. 


1. Richard Warren. 

(See Vis. Gloucestershire.) 

2. Thomas Warren. Christian = George Cook, 

(See Vis. Worcestershire.) of London. 


3. John Warren, 
of Westminster, 
in Middlesex, 


Alice, dau. of John Guilliam, 
of Walthamstow, in Essex. 

Anne, = William Best, 
of Bradway, in 








Thomas Warren, 
of Staunton. 

Milescent, dau. of 
. . . Pettifew. 


1. Richard Warren, = 
of Staunton. 

Jane, daughter of 
Thomas Astley, of 
Wolver, of War- 


1. Thomas. 2. John. 

2. Thomas Warren, = Anne, daugh- 
of Beston, in Wor- ter of Palmer, 
cestershire. of Rodway, in 


3. Richard. 4. Giles. 


3. John Warren, = Alice, dau. of 
one of the Cof- John Guilliam. 
ferrer's Clerks 
to King James. 

4. Giles Warren. 


5. Lawrence Warren. 

(Arms as in preceding.) 





William Warren, 
of Newton, in Suf- 

Bridget, dau. of 
. . . Odham. 


John Warren, 
of Newton. 


Dorothy, dau. of 
Robert Ford, of 
Hadley, in Suff. 

Barbara, dau. of: 
John Soame, of 
Wans den, in Suf- 
folk, first wife. 

Roger Warren, 
of Newton. 

Mary, daughter of 
Sir John Cornwal- 
lis, of Brome, se- 
cond wife. 


1. Roger. 




2. Francis. 

Dorothy. Barbara. 




3. Thomas. Beatrice. 

(For Arms, see preceding.) 




...dau. of Cooper, 
of Somersetshire, 
first wife. 

Thomas Warren, 
of Great Thurlow. 

1. Jasper. 

Eobert Warren, =j 
of Long Melfourd, 
in Suffolk, 1538. ' 

Jasper Warren, 
of Great Thurlow, 
in Suffolk, 

thirdly, Cathe- 
rine, dau. of John 
Vale, of Welling- 
ton, in Cambridge- 

Catharine, dau. 
of . . . Browne, 
second wife. 


of London. 

Lambert Warren. 


Philip Paris, 
of Ellington, 
in Hunting- 

Prances, dau. of 
John Smyth, of 
Harden, in Suf- 

James, ob. s. p. 




Beyis, of 


John Bet- 
tenham, of 
in Kent. 

John Smyth, 
of Thurlow, 
Bachelor of 

2. Thomas. 

3. John. 

Isabell, : 

: Roger Webb, 
of Colledge, 
in Suffolk. 





.... Warren, =^= 
descended from the 
Warrens of Pointon, 
in Cheshire. 

< J 

Christopher Warren, 
Alderman of Coventry. 

1. Christopher Warren, 
Mayor of Coventry. 


2. Richard Waring 




3. Thomas Waring. 


1. Richard Waring, 2. "William. 8. John. Prudence. 
aged 14 ; 1619. 





1. Christopher, 
aged 21; 1619. 

2. John. 

3. Edward. 4. William. 




John Warren, Lord of Stockport, 
and of Poynton in' Cheshire, Knt. 

Isabel, dau. of John Stanley, 
of Lathom, Knight. 


1. Sir Lawrence Warren, 

Knight, Lord of Stopford 
and Poynton. 


Isabell, dau. of 2. John Warren, m. 3. Richard. 
Robert Leighe, Anne, daughter of 4. Henry Warren. 

Lord Stafford. 

of Adlington. 



5. John Warren, m. 
Margaret, dau. of 
Wm. Booth, Knt. 




Henry. William. 

John de Warren, 
Lord of Stopford 
and Poynton, Knt., 
ob. 1517. 


1. Lawrence Warren, 
Lord of Stopford and 
Poynton, born 1479 ; 
died 1530. 


Eleanor, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Gerard, 
of Brinne, Knight. 

Margaret, dau. of 
Sir . . . Leighe, of 
Lime, Knight. 

2. Richard Warren 

3. Nicholas. 

4. Jeremy. 

Kath. Moore. 

5. Ralph. 6. Thomas. 7. Rohekt. 

(Continued on page 112/ 



(Visitation op Cheshire. —Continued from page 111.) 

1. Lawrence Warren, =?= Margaret Leighe. 


1. Sir Edward "Warren, 
of Stopford and Poyn- 

Dorothy, dau. of 2. Lawrence. 4. George. Ellen. 

Sir Wm. Booth, 3. Edward. 6. Edward. Dorothy. 

of Dunham, Knt. 


r~i r 







5. Ralph Warren, m. 
Elizabeth, daughter 
and heiress of Henry 

r i 





1. John Warren, 
Lord of Stop- 
ford and of 

Margaret, dau. 
of Sir Richard 

2. Edward. 





3. Lawrence Warren, m. Frances, 4. Peter Warren, m. Elizabeth, 
dau. of Richard Broughton, of dau. of . . . Norris. 

Staffordshire. =p= •■ 


r r 

John. Peter. 

Dorothy. Ellen. 


1. Sir Edward Warren, 
of Poynton and Stop- 

Susan, dau. of Sir 
William Boothe, 
of Dunham, Knt. 

2. Lawrence. 

3. Richard. 

4. John. 

5. Ralph. 

6. William. 

7. George. 






John Warren, 
of Poynton and 
Stopford, living 
in 1613. 


1. Edward, aged 7 ; 1613. 


Anne, dau 
George . . . . 
of Bilsey, in 

2. John. 

3. Lawrence. 




Sir Edward Warrin, 
Lord of Stockport and 


John Warrin, 
ob. sine prole. 

Sir John "Warrin, ===== Elizabeth, dau. of 

Sir John Stanley, 
of Lathom, Knt. 

Lord of Stokeport 
and Poynton 




Sir Lawrence Warrin, 
of the same place. 


Isabell, dau. of 
Robert Leigh, 
of Addington. 

John Warrin, === Eleanor, daughter of 
ob. 9th Henry 

Sir Thomas Gerard. 



Laurence Warrin, 
Lord of Stokeport. 


Margaret, dau. of 
Sir Henry Leigh, 



Laurence Warrin, 
a younger son. 


John Warrin, =; 
born near Poyn- 


Robert Warrin, 
b. near Poynton. 

Anne, dau. of 
. . . Browne, 
of Wiltshire. 

2. John Warrin. 

3. Richard Warrin. 

Robert Warrin, 
liveth in Russia. 

Judith, dau. of ===== Richard Warrin, == Mary, daut. of 
Walter "Walton, of London, second Thomas Ward, 
of Bletso, in Co. son, 1634. of Suffolk. 


third son. 


FEB 23 1915 

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